Signs and wonders will be seen – You know my tears – This is the hour – No man shall stop my plan – Trust me!
Follow the hand of God – I will reach for you – Take my hand – Walk with me – Praise the Lord!
You have been called – You are my witness – The Rapture is coming – I am the Light – Expect me!
This is the time of teaching – There shall be a Crusade – Prepare for me – I have risen – Embrace me!
A new day is coming – I am building a Temple – My Church is being restored – Read the signs – Stand!
“The Last Days of Tolemac” is a book of prophecy. It deals with events that are happening in the world today and shows how they fulfill prophecies that were made many centuries ago. The book is set out in a series of questions and answers, and explains in detail:
- What is about to happen to our planet
- Why these events are happening at this time
- What places on earth will be affected
- What the new world will be like
- What we can do to prepare
If you wish to read these prophecies Click Here
As the book explains, our world is about to be transformed. We are about to experience “a new heaven and a new earth” where there will be no more suffering and no more pain. However all of us are faced with a choice. Do we wish to inherit the new world that is coming? Or will we fall victim to the catastrophes that will herald its arrival? What we need to do to survive is explained in the pages of this book.
For the information of readers, The Last Days of Tolemac is now available on Kindle Books as a Digital Download, as well as Allan’s major work entitled The Cosmic Web.
The Cosmic Web explains the mysteries of life, and shows how we all have within us hidden powers that will transform our lives in the coming age. Many of the stories that appear on this Blog, as well as articles on esoteric aspects of life, have been taken from this book. And as usual with Kindle books, if you click on the cover of either book, you can read part of the contents for free.
Both books can be accessed here
Allan Colston can be contacted at Tolemac@shaw.ca
For the benefit of readers who might be looking for information on specific subjects related to prophecy, the following articles have been included here for easy reference. They can be found in “Articles” listed under the heading “Categories” in the column on the right:
- The Apocalypse Unveiled
- The Rapture Revealed
- The Lost Years of Jesus
- The New Golden Age
- The Last Pope
- The Death of the Pope
- The Doomsday Prophecies
- 2012 and the Maya Calendar
- The Kachina Prophecies of the Hopi
- Rebuilding the Temple of Solomon
- What is “Wormwood” in the Book of Revelation?
- What is “Mystery Babylon” in the Book of Revelation?
Scott: My name is Scott Paton. I am talking today with Allan Colston. He is the author of the book “The Last Days of Tolemac”. This is a book dealing with prophecy.
For those listeners who may be new to this topic, this Podcast is another in the series “Signs of the Times”. Hello Allan and welcome to the Podcast.
Thanks Scott, it’s good to chat to you once again.
Scott: Allan, I see that you have titled this Podcast “Recapitulation”. What exactly do you mean by that?
Well Scott, I don’t know if you remember, but back in March you started off our Podcast # 21 by asking me whether the various subjects that I have been writing about over the last year or so were all related to the subject of prophecy, and if so, how?
Scott: Now that you mention it, I do remember that.
Well Scott, the good news is that I am finally in a position to answer that question. And in doing so, I also want to put all the different topics I have written about in context, and explain how they are related to prophecy.
Scott: I’m sure your listeners will appreciate that. I know I will.
OK Scott, let’s start off by going back to the very beginning. When I wrote the book “The Last Days of Tolemac”, my purpose was to point out that the events that are happening in the world today are actually fulfilling prophecies that were made several thousand years ago.
Now there was nothing particularly novel about that. After all, the idea that we are living in the last days prophesied in the Bible have been current ever since Hal Lindsey published his world-wide best seller called “The Late Great Planet Earth” way back in 1970.
What was different about my book, was that it not only described in detail what would happen to the earth in the days ahead, but why these events were happening, what places on earth would be affected, what the new world would be like, and what we could do to prepare.
As I explained, we are about to experience “a new heaven and a new earth” where there will be no more suffering and no more pain. However, all of us are faced with a choice. Will we live to inhabit the new world that is coming, or will we fall victim to the catastrophes that will herald its arrival?
The decision as to whether we will literally live or die rests with each one of us, and it is our response to the daily challenges of our lives that will determine whether we will be counted among those who will live on in glory, or those who will succumb to the horrors that are coming.
Scott: So tell me Allan, how do we know when these horrors are coming?
Well Scott, the prophets of the Old Testament were very specific when they wrote about the events that would happen on the earth during the days leading up to the end of the present age, and the beginning of the new age to come. In fact they referred to this period as the “Latter Days”.
They predicted that the current age would end with a seven year period which they called the “Tribulation”, on account of the devastation that would occur on the earth, and the suffering that would be inflicted on those who were alive at that time.
In addition, this period of seven years would begin and end with two dramatic events. It would begin with a series of disasters which would all happen in the course of a single day. They referred to this day as “The Great and Terrible Day of the Lord”.
They also predicted that this seven year period of affliction would end with the appearance in the heavens of the Messiah or Saviour, who would then judge all the people of the earth, both the living and the dead, based on their actions when they were alive.
They also went on to describe a series of events that would occur in the world shortly before that period, so that people who were alive at that time would know that the “last days” were imminent. These events were centred in the countries of the Middle East.
Scott: What sort of events did they describe?
They said that the Jews would be gathered up from the far corners of the earth, and would return to their ancestral land and become a nation state once more. And of course Scott, this happened in 1948 when the British Mandate for Palestine expired, and Israel became an independent state.
They also predicted that the Jews would regain control of the city of Jerusalem, which they achieved in 1967 during the so-called “Six Day” war. They also said that the state of Israel would go on to become a target of neighbouring countries who would seek to destroy it.
The prophet Ezekiel described how the enemies of the Jews would form a military alliance that would surround Israel on every side. But just when they were poised to strike, the Lord would intervene miraculously by causing the Arab armies to be annihilated by “brimstone and fiery hail” that would descend on them from the sky.
And everything that I have written about on my Blog lately has been linked to these events in one way or another. For example, because Persia was one of the countries that was specifically mentioned by the prophets, I have written a lot about Iran, and particularly their attempts to acquire nuclear weapons.
In fact Scott, there are three things that I think all students of prophecy ought to be focused on at this time, because they hold the key to understanding what is about to happen to our world, and especially the build-up to “The Great and Terrible Day of the Lord”.
Scott: What sort of things are you referring to?
Well Scott, the first and most important thing we need to focus on is the state of Israel itself, simply because that is where the Old Testament prophets came from, and that is where the events that they wrote about are predicted to take place.
The second is the state of Persia, or Iran as it is now called, because it will come to play a crucial role in the formation of the Islamic Alliance that is predicted to undertake the land invasion of Israel. And the third thing we need to be aware of is comets.
As I pointed out in my Blog post headed Signs in the Sky , the Old Testament prophets made it clear that the disasters associated with “The Great and Terrible Day of the Lord” would be something that would come from the heavens, as can be seen from the following quotations.
“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood and fire and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes.” (Joel 2:30-32)
“For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.” (Isaiah 13:10)
“The great day of the Lord is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of the day of the Lord: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly. That day is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness.” (Zephaniah 1:14-15)
Scott: So why do you think that these disasters will be the result of a close encounter between the earth and a comet?
Well as I pointed out in my book as well as in earlier posts, in Chapter 8 of his Book of Revelation, John describes seven angels who were given seven trumpets. As each angel sounded their trumpet, the earth was assailed by a specific disaster.
“The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of the trees was burnt up, and all the green grass was burnt up.
“And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; and the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.
“And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; and the name of the star is called Wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. (Revelation 8:7-12)
In my book I go into great detail explaining the meaning of these verses in modern astronomical terms. I also point out that similar things have happened before, such as when the children of Israel were led out of bondage by Moses, and Egypt was devastated by a series of plagues.
And that is what makes my Blog different from most of the other commentators of Biblical prophecy. I don’t spend time warning people about Hell or the need to repent their sins and transform their lives. I just try to focus on the facts and point out where they lead.
I then leave it up to each individual reader to judge for themselves whether what I have written makes any sense, and if it does, I let them decide what changes, if any, are needed in their lives, and what actions they should take to deal with their own personal challenges.
Scott: So Allan, how does this relate to all the other subjects you have been writing about?
Well Scott, up to about a year ago, I had been focusing on the three topics I referred to earlier, namely, the events in the Middle East, particularly Israel, the efforts by Iran to develop nuclear weapons, and the comet Ison, which was at that time approaching perihelion.
As things turned out, all three of these situations reached a point of suspended activity at about the same time, and this allowed me the opportunity to branch out into other areas, such as ancient history, the philosophy of science and the Kingdom of God.
First of all, at the direction of President Obama, John Kerry embarked on an ambitious timetable to try to get a peace agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. These negotiations dragged on for nine months and ultimately collapsed completely.
At the same time, events in Iran underwent a significant change. President Hassan Rouhani was chosen to replace Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. He proved to be a far more pragmatic leader than his predecessor, and he entered into a series of negotiations with the West to try to resolve the nuclear issue.
These talks also meandered on for many months, but only led to the decision to keep on talking for many more months, which is where matters stand at the moment. So the situation regarding their nuclear ambitions has also remained on hold since that time.
Finally, Ison proved to be a literal bust, as the comet that had attracted so much attention from the media fizzled out in a matter of days, when the comet disintegrated completely just as it was making its closest approach to the Sun. So that topic could be conveniently shelved for a while.
So I used this political stalemate between the Jews and the Palestinians, and the protracted negotiations between the Iranians and the G-7 countries, as an opportunity to branch out into other areas which I felt readers ought to know about.
Scott: What other areas did you have in mind?
One area where I devoted a considerable amount of Blog space has been the nature of comets, what they are made of, and why they behave the way they do. After all, if the world is to be endangered by a close encounter with a comet, then it would help to know precisely what we are up against.
And this is where the matter gets confusing. Most scientists and astronomers today still cling to the “dirty snowball” theory of comets, which says that they consist primarily of dust and ice. However, the latest findings of space probes prove definitively that this is not the case.
The reason why I have discussed the “Electric Theory” of the universe in such detail is because it explains the nature and behaviour of comets so much more effectively than standard theory, and because it can also predict the outcome of close encounters with comets with greater accuracy.
But rather than express my own views on the subject, I preferred to outline the major features of both theories, so that readers could then draw their own conclusions. And I applied this same approach to the whole “Electric Theory” of the universe.
Scott: What about subjects like the philosophy of science, Darwin’s theory of evolution and the theory of Uniformitarianism?. How do they relate to prophecy?
I’m glad you mentioned that Scott. The reason I wrote about the philosophy of science, and especially the work of research scientist Thomas Kuhn, was to help readers understand the importance of the concept of the word “paradigm” within a scientific context.
The average person today is easily duped by the scientific community into believing that all scientific research is conducted in the traditional spirit of science, and is a simple quest for understanding, and one in which the results are allowed to speak for themselves.
Unfortunately, the reality is that students of scientific disciplines are indoctrinated in the course of their studies. This indoctrination takes place within the arena of the prevailing paradigm, which sets out specific things that students must embrace as accepted truth before they can graduate.
The best example of this today is Darwin’s theory of evolution, as well as the theory of Uniformitarianism on which it is based. As I pointed out in earlier posts, despite the fact that both of these theories no longer stand up to critical analysis, they continue to be taught to students as if they were established fact.
But if we are to understand what is really happening in our world today, and why the long prophesied time of “Tribulation” is shortly about to befall the earth, we need to understand the true facts, rather than the platitudes of scientists who follow their own agenda of obscuring the truth.
Scott: And what about the legend of Lemuria?
This is a classic example of what I was referring to. Despite the fact that evidence can be found all over the world of advanced cultures that lived many thousands of years before the “accepted history” of humanity, scientists continue to ignore this evidence.
They do so because they cling to the accepted version of history, which is that civilization began about five thousand years ago, and that any evidence that suggests otherwise is therefore wrong, and must be ignored by the scientific community.
The reality is that human beings have existed on this planet for tens of thousands of years, and that some of these civilizations of the past have reached levels that have even surpassed our own. Civilizations like those of Atlantis and Lemuria were destroyed as a result of global catastrophes.
Readers need to understand that the history of humanity on the earth has not unfolded in an unbroken sequence of development from earliest societies up to the world-wide civilization that we see on earth today, as modern scientists would have us believe.
Instead there have been numerous cultures that have risen to great levels of achievement in the past, only to be destroyed later, usually as a result of their own inherent corruption, which is of course the reason why our own civilization is in such peril today.
Scott: Finally Allan, why did you write about the Kingdom of God, and how does it relate to things that are going on today?
Excellent question Scott. I wrote about the Kingdom of God because it relates directly to the New Age that is about to unfold upon the earth, and which will manifest before our eyes once the horrors of the seven years of Tribulation are at an end.
Again, readers need to understand that the new world that is dawning will not be a mere repetition of the events that have happened in the past. What we are about to experience will be an evolutionary leap in consciousness that is planetary in scope. As the Oracle of Tolemac has stated:
“The moment is at hand when the earth will take the greatest evolutionary step that humanity will ever witness. Never before in the history of earth will there be changes as profound as those that now await you.” (from The Last Days of Tolemac)
As has been the teaching of the Rishis of the East for thousands of years:
“To be a living being is not the ultimate state; there is something beyond, much more wonderful, which is neither being nor non-being, neither living nor not-living. It is a state of pure awareness, beyond the limitations of space and time.” (Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj)
This new state of consciousness will not be something that we can personally control. It will be a call from within, from the deepest part of our Being – that part of us that is all-embracing – and is Divine.
This new state of mind will not be something that we consciously choose to adopt. It will be more like giving ourselves up and surrendering to an overwhelming force within ourselves, where we become at one with ourselves and with the universe.
The Kingdom of God is the experience of the understanding of who we really are, together with the freedom that overcomes all limitations, and the Peace within that surpasses all understanding.
This is the wonder of the New Age that is dawning within each one of us that is ready and willing to embrace it. The Light that is coming will transform our inner lives, which will in turn transform our planet and all the life-forms that live upon it.
It will be an experience that will come to include all the creatures that share our life path. It will be a path of caring and sharing. For as the Oracle of Tolemac has predicted:
“Some day soon there will be a day of singing such as has never before been heard upon the earth. It will be the sound of a single voice. This single voice will swell with a great multitude of heavenly voices. Choirs of angelic voices will be heard in unison together singing “Come home Earth, Come home, Come home.
“Then will be heard in response a chorus of all the souls upon the earth. It will be a mingling of the voices of people and of birds and of animals. There will be a harmony of sound and colour and beauty that is beyond telling.
“All the souls of earth will join together in worship of the Everlasting Light. This is the Light that shines within the heart of every soul. It is the Light of the eternal “I Am”. (from The Last Days of Tolemac)
Scott: Thanks Allan. This has been an amazing overview of all that you have been writing about and how it fits in with the events that are unfolding in our world.
You have been listening to Allan Colston, author of the book “The Last Days of Tolemac”. Do join us for our next Podcast in the series titled “Signs of the Times”.
It is evident that the ruins at Tiwanaku have mystified visitors for centuries. When the chronicler Pedro Cieza de León first arrived in the area with the Spanish conquistadors in 1548, he was told by the Incas that the place had been abandoned long before their arrival, and that they had no idea who built them.
And this mystery might have persisted right up to the present day, had it not been for the intervention of an extraordinary adventurer by the name of Arturo (Arthur) Posnansky. Born in Vienna, Austria, in 1873, Arthur did not take long to demonstrate his life-long interest in ancient civilizations.
Soon after completing his studies in engineering, he undertook a series of training voyages with the Austro-Hungarian navy. These journeys took him to many places, including Easter Island in the South Pacific. It was here that he first began to write about his archaeological and ethnological investigations.
Then in 1896, at the age of 23, he emigrated to South America where he participated in several expeditions exploring the upper reaches of the Amazon river. After a variety of adventures in Brazil he subsequently moved to Bolivia in 1903, where he remained until his death in 1946.
Over the years he published many books, and at the time of his death he was the Director of the National Museum of Bolivia, as well as the Archaeological Society. The climax of his investigative career was the publication in four volumes of his most famous work: Tiahuanaco, The Cradle of American Man.
When Posnansky first visited Tiwanaku in 1903, very little excavation had taken place at the site, which was still covered with four to six feet of alluvial mud that had been frozen into a solid mass by the harsh climate. At that time relatively little could be seen above the surface of the ground.
The “Gateway of the Sun” was broken into two pieces, and was half buried in the soil. But there was another feature of the site that caught Posnansky’s attention. This was a series of stone columns more than twelve feet high that had been sunk into the ground of what is now known as the courtyard.
These stone columns have been responsible for giving the entire courtyard area its modern name of Kalasasaya, or place of the standing stones. When he had an opportunity to study these stones, Posnansky described what he found in the following words:
“The columns today have the appearance of crude stones planted in the ground. However, in their time they were not only carefully aligned and carved but on the sides facing the interior of the building were magnificent symbolical inscriptions as can be seen on a piece that has fallen from one of them and on which a part of these drawings has been miraculously saved.
“Because of the enormous age of these great pilasters which were the support of the walls, some of them have fallen down and others are so thin in certain parts that they threaten to fall over from one moment to the next.” (View source)
The standing stones as they were when Posnansky first saw them in 1903
When Posnansky first came across these columns, they stood separately from one another in a straight line. He discovered that there were eleven stone columns in total. However, not all of them were still standing. One had fallen down, while another was found in a field some distance away.
It is important to point out here that, during the course of reconstruction by the authorities in the 1960′s, a wall was built to fill in the spaces between these columns. Apparently, not realising the significance of the stone column which lay in the field nearby, they ignored it when they were building the wall.
The stone wall and the standing stones as they have been restored today. Note that the wall has a space in the centre where the extra stone should be
But the significance of these standing stones would have been lost, were it not for the presence of the “Gateway of the Sun”, and the unique set of glyphs that were carved upon it. Through a fortunate set of circumstances, the face of the Sun Gate had been remarkably preserved. As Posnansky later wrote:
“The Sun Door which was found lying on its face on the ground, has been preserved in wonderful condition with all its inscriptions; but its back, and especially the end exposed to the adverse atmospheric conditions, shows an enormous wearing away.
“It should be pointed out that the block from which this notable monument was carved, is composed of andesitic hornblende, vitreous and very hard lava, which, polished as it was in that period, required several thousands of years to wear away in the form in which we see it today.” (View source)
The Gateway of the Sun as it stands in the Kalasasaya courtyard today
In studying the inscriptions that had been carved on the face of the Sun Gate, Posnansky was intrigued by a series of eleven glyphs that were carved along the bottom of the gate. There were five glyphs on the left of the central glyph, and five on the right, as shown below.
The eleven glyphs carved along the bottom of the Gateway of the Sun
Ponansky’s crucial contribution towards unravelling the mystery of Tiwanaku, was his realization that these eleven glyphs carved on the “Gateway of the Sun” explained how the eleven standing stones could be used as a sophisticated ancient calendar.
Although the inscriptions on the Sun Gate held the key to understanding how this ancient calendar worked, it was the actual row of pillars (standing stones) themselves that served as the means of calculating the calendar, as well as the months and seasons of the year.
Posnansky discovered that there was a “viewing stone” that was set into the centre of the courtyard, from which it was possible to observe the sun as it set below the horizon in the West.
By studying the daily movements of the sun, he found that the standing stones at each end had been deliberately placed to coincide with the positions of the sun at the mid-summer and mid-winter solstices.
Over the course of every six months therefore, the sun would set directly over each standing stone in sequence, before turning back and following the same procedure in reverse.
It was clear to Posnansky that the builders of Tiwanaku had used this simple but sophisticated system to track the path of the sun and the moon.
Over the course of half a year, the sun would pass directly over each of the eleven standing stones in turn, before reversing its path back to where it started
Because there were eleven standing stones, it was evident that the builders divided the year into two sets of ten periods or “months”. Starting from the extreme left hand stone, it would take the sun ten “months” to reach the extreme right-hand stone, and another ten “months” to do the same thing in reverse.
As an interesting aside, the Spanish chronicler Pedro Cieza de León noted in his Chronicle of Peru published in 1553:
“Among the people of the Collao (the area around Lake Titicaca) there are men of great intelligence, who reply to what is asked from them; and they take account of time, and know some of the movements both of the sun and the moon. They count their years from ten months to ten months, and I learned from them that they call the year Mari, the moon or month Alespaquexe, and the day Auro.” (View source)
In his book Tiwanaku: A City Lost in Time, author Jim Allen gives a detailed explanation of exactly how this ancient Sun Calendar functioned, as well as how it was used to track the movements of the moon. An animated version of this Soli-Lunar calendar can be seen here.
By analysing the movements of the sun as it passed over the various standing stones, Posnansky was able to determine that the amount of time it took for the sun to move from one stone to another was eighteen days. This enabled him to calculate that the Tiwanaku year consisted of 360 days. (10 x18 days x 2)
When Posnansky determined that the length of the Tiwanaku year was 360 days, it is unlikely that he realised the true significance of his discovery. It was not until about half a century later that Immanuel Velikovsky was able to explain why ancient societies used 360 days as the length of the solar year.
As everyone today is aware, the current length of the solar year is slightly more than 365 days, with an extra day being added every four years in order to bring our modern calendar into alignment with the movements of the sun. But, as Velikovsky pointed out, the length of the year was not always that way.
As was pointed out in the Post titled 2012 And All That, the basic unit of the “Long Count” calendar of the Maya was the Tun, which consisted of a cycle of 360 days. But the Maya were not the only people in antiquity to base their calendar on a solar year consisting of 360 days.
So did the Incas of Peru, as well as the ancient Egyptians, Persians, Hindus, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Hebrews, Chinese, Greeks and the Romans. And the reason they did so, was because the length of the solar year at that time actually was 360 days. In other words, the earth moved in a different orbit around the sun than it does now.
According to their “Long Count” calendar, the Maya believed that we are currently living in the fifth world age, and that the present cycle of the sun began in 3114 BC. So, had Posnansky been aware of this, he would have immediately realised that Tiwanaku had to have been built more than five thousand years ago, that is before 3114 BC.
How much earlier than five thousand years ago might have seemed to be an insoluble problem, but based on his own measurements involving the movements of the sun and the alignments of the standing stones, Posnansky came up with an ingenious solution. It was a solution that was based on archaeo-astronomy.
As he later explained in his book Tiahuanaco, The Cradle of American Man, the earth is tilted on its axis with respect to the plane of the solar system. The extent of this angular tilt is known as the “obliqueness of the ecliptic”, not to be confused with the well known “precession of the equinox”.
At present the earth is tilted at an angle of 23º and 27 minutes, but this angle is not constant. Over the years it oscillates between 22º and 1 minute, and 24º and 5 minutes. Posnansky found that the alignment of the Kalasasaya temple depicted a tilt in the earth’s axis amounting to 23º, 8 minutes and 48 seconds.
Based on these calculations, Posnansky came up with a date when the Kalasasaya temple was constructed, of about 15,000 years BC. For those who would like a visual summary of Posnansky’s theory, the principles on which it was based, and how he came up with the date of 15,000 BC, the following video provides an excellent illustration.
Naturally, the idea of an advanced civilization existing on the South American continent around 15,000 BC defied all conventional thinking about the age of civilization on the earth, and for this reason Posnansky was denounced as a fraud by the scientific fraternity.
Unfortunately, little has changed since the death of Posnansky almost seventy years ago. It seems that we will have to wait for many more years before conventional science is willing to accept the idea that the history of humanity on this planet extends a lot farther back in time than they presently admit.
When James Churchward published his book The Lost Continent of Mu: Motherland of Man in 1926, he claimed that a towering civilization once dominated the world for hundreds of thousands of years, only to be destroyed in a world-wide cataclysm that has long since been forgotten.
Based on ancient clay tablets that he had been taught to decipher by an old temple priest while he was in India, Churchward said that the name of this civilisation was Mu, and that it existed on a continent called Lemuria, that stretched across a large part of the Pacific Ocean.
In previous instalments it was pointed out that, while there is no evidence of a sunken continent in that area, there are numerous island chains scattered around the Pacific Ocean which possess enigmatic stone ruins which were clearly never built by the Polynesian cultures that populate the region today.
In addition, there remains the mystery of Easter Island and its giant carved stone statues called Moai, which continue to defy conventional explanation. And now we have Tiwanaku and Puma Punku, which point to a date of origin far earlier than modern historians are willing to accept.
Despite the fact that Churchward’s ideas have been scornfully rejected by the academic community, in light of the mysteries that have been exposed in this series of articles, it is perhaps instructive to read what he wrote in his book The Lost Continent of Mu:
“Continuing my researches, I discovered that this lost continent had extended from somewhere north of Hawaii to the south as far as the Fijis and Easter Island, and was undoubtedly the original habitat of man.”
“I learned that in this beautiful country there had lived a people that colonized the earth, and that this land of smiling plenty had been obliterated by terrific earthquakes and submersion 12,000 years ago, and had vanished in a vortex of fire and water.”
“On some of the South Sea Islands, notably Easter, Mangaia, Tonga-tabu, Panape, and the Ladrone or Mariana Islands, there stand today remains of old stone temples and lithic remains which take us back to the time of Mu.” (View Source)
It is clear from what James Churchward has written, that the ruins that can still be found today on various islands in the Pacific Ocean, such as Ponape, Tonga and Easter Island, were once part of the great civilization of Mu, before it disappeared beneath the waves some 12,000 years ago.
Churchward also goes on to point out that while the continent of Lemuria was the centre of the civilization of Mu, there were other places on earth where they had established colonies, such as Egypt, India and South America. It is certainly possible that the ruins of Tiwanaku could well be the remains of one of these colonies.
And if it was, then they too would have been engulfed by the terrible events that led to the destruction of Mu, and its disappearance beneath the raging waters of the Pacific Ocean. There was, however, one significant difference.
Instead of plunging beneath the sea, they suddenly found themselves being thrust many thousands of feet into the air. In what was probably a compensatory geological response, as one landmass disappeared under the water, the coastline of South America was suddenly elevated.
While the convulsions of this rising land would likely have destroyed the cities located on the shore, it is possible that scattered groups of people might somehow have survived these catastrophic events. Finding that they could no longer live at their new elevation, they might have made their way back to the sea.
There they would have to face the challenge of trying to survive on a coastline that had been swept clean by devastating tsunamis. One can imagine how they might have reacted, possessing vast technological knowledge, yet without the means or resources to be able to resuscitate their former way of life.
Would they have spent their time trying to create a record of what they had once achieved, in the hope that this would one day be discovered by later generations? And if so, could this have been the explanation for the mysterious lines of Nazca in Peru, or the controversial “Stones of Ica”.
It was in 1956 that a pilot flying over the coastal area of southern Peru noticed a series of unusual designs etched into the desert sand near the town of Nazca. What made these designs so unusual was their enormous size, and the fact that they had gone unnoticed for so long by people on the ground.
Two things were obvious. The first was that these designs had been made by people who had an advanced knowledge of surveying, to enable them to construct straight lines over long distances with extraordinary accuracy. The second was that these images were intended to be seen from the air.
Then in the early 1960′s, a local Doctor discovered a series of stones in the town of Ica, not far from Nazca. These stones were made of a very hard form of granite called andesite. What was so distinctive about these stones was that they had images carved into them.
Some of these images were of flowers, fishes and animals, but others had pictures of advanced technical subjects such as maps, astronomy, telescopes, and even heart transplants, which were completely unknown to the natives of the area at that time. It is not surprising that scientists dismissed these stones as modern fakes.
But what is clear from an examination of both sites is that the same people who created these enigmatic designs on the desert sands of Nazca, also carved the “Stones of Ica”, as the designs that appear on the desert floor are the same as those depicted on these andesite stones, as can be seen from the following Blog post.
Because these designs were obviously made to be seen from the sky, it suggests that that the civilization of Mu had attained the power of flight, and that the survivors at Nazca hoped that their SOS signals in the desert might possibly attract the attention of their craft.
Sadly for those people gathered on the shore, the same forces of Nature that had destroyed their former city of Tiwanaku, had also been responsible for the complete destruction of the Motherland as well. As a result, their longed awaited rescue never arrived.
If the story told by James Churchward based on the Naacal clay tablets that he studied in India is true, then there once was an advanced civilization that reached great technological heights, only to be destroyed completely in a series of catastrophic disasters.
And today, only a faint echo of the glory of that time lives on in isolated islands scattered around the Pacific Ocean, and in places like Tiwanaku and other parts of Bolivia and Peru. So the crucial question remains. If such a continental cataclysm happened on the earth in the past, could it occur again?
And if it did, could this happen in our own time? In answer, it is perhaps worth repeating the comment made by the old Egyptian priest to the Greek lawmaker Solon, with which we began this series on Lemuria. As Plato recorded in his dialogue Timaeus:
“Oh Solon, Solon, you Greeks are all children, and there is no such thing as an old Greek…You have no belief rooted in old tradition and no knowledge hoary with age. And the reason is this. There have been and will be many different calamities to destroy mankind, the greatest of them by fire and water, lesser ones by countless other means.”
These words should serve as a warning to us that advanced technological accomplishments are no guarantee that civilizations are safe from destruction, and that sudden disaster may overtake them at any time, perhaps when they least expect it.
If the clarion call of history cannot bring us to our senses, by pointing out the destruction of ancient civilizations in the past, then maybe the words of Biblical prophets will serve to remind us that our time is short, and that dire events may soon befall us.
In addition, as the Oracle of Tolemac has warned:
“For you have reached that point in your history when many will face the same conditions that occurred on that far-off day in Tolemac, when the earth shook, the waters rose, the land fell, and the people cried out in terror, fearing that they would all be destroyed.”
(Excerpt from “The Last Days of Tolemac”)
New York Times – October 28, 1921
In a news article published by the New York Times on October 28, 1921, the famed American automobile magnate Henry Ford made the memorable comment, which has since been repeated innumerable times, when he said: History is bunk!
Now Henry Ford’s remark was directed more toward his attitude that events that happen in the present are more important than things that have happened in the past. But there was more wisdom in his words than he might have imagined at the time.
In an essay devoted to this point, noted columnist Patrick Lockerby wrote:
“In archaeology and library research you can make a claim based on the easy pickings that lie on the surface or you can break into a sweat as you dig deeper. But it is not enough to dig deep. You must sift every spadeful, and sift it fine. Truth is most often found in the tiniest of grains: it is easy to miss if you don’t focus intently.” (View Source)
His point goes to the very heart of the historical dilemma. The history of the past is invariably written, and rewritten, by the historians of the present. And it is often their misinformed education of the present which leads to their deformed view of the past.
And it is in this sense that much of what has been written about the past is often “pure bunk”. An example of this was provided in the previous instalment in the history of Easter Island, which reads like the script from a soap opera, replete with jealousy, vengeance, war, starvation and ultimately cannibalism and death.
And all this simply because those historians who concocted the history of Easter Island prior to the arrival of Westerners, neglected to attend to the vital point mentioned by Lockerby, when he said: Truth is most often found in the tiniest of grains.
In the case of Easter Island, archaeologists, historians, geographers and a host of other scientists all missed the crucial clue, which was that the key to understanding the mystery of its past lay in solving the riddle of the soil that covers the entire island. How was it deposited and when?
But there is an even better example of a conundrum posed by a mysterious set of ancient ruins, which has also been mangled by archaeologists and historians, who have once again allowed the “easy pickings that lie on the surface” to blind them to the truth that lay beneath.
Part of the reconstructed ruins of Tiwanaku
These ruins can be found today in the South American country of Bolivia, on the flanks of the Andes mountains, and are located just 45 miles (72 kms) from the modern city of La Paz. These ruins lie within the boundaries of the municipality of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco).
The ruins of Tiwanaku may be small in size, yet they provide a stunning display of ancient megalithic architecture, engineering and geometry that clearly supersedes anything else of its era. In fact, in designating this a World Heritage site in the year 2000, UNESCO noted:
“The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between 500 and 900 AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilisation, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.” (View Source)
The ruins themselves can roughly be divided into four separate areas. The first is what is known as the pyramid of Akapana. Then there is the area of the semi-underground temple. This is located in front of the area of the ceremonial courtyard of Kalasasaya. Finally there is the area known as Puma Punku.
The Akapana pyramid is perhaps something of a misnomer, as it is a blend between the step pyramids of Mexico and the pyramids of Egypt. Shaped more in the form of a rectangular cross, it consists of seven different levels, each with its own stone retaining wall, and rises to a height of about 55 feet (18 metres).
However, only the lowest level and part of the second have been excavated from the earth that covers it. Investigations suggest that the entire pyramid was once clad in blocks of red sandstone. The whole structure is surrounded by well-preserved drainage canals.
The area of the small semi-subterranean temple is accessed by a series of descending steps. The temple itself is made up of 48 pillars made of red sandstone. Its most notable feature are the many styles of carved stone heads that are set into the surrounding walls.
In the centre of the underground temple stands a carved stone monolith known as “El Fraile” (The Friar). This statue was carved out of red andesite, a type of very hard granite that is common to the region.
Situated to the side of the Akapana pyramid is a large courtyard and ceremonial platform known as the Kalasasaya. The courtyard is over three hundred feet long. It is entered through a flight of seven steps cut into the centre of the eastern wall, leading to an imposing gateway made out of enormous blocks of stone.
The imposing Gateway of the Sun
The interior of the courtyard contains two carved monoliths, one of which weighs over twenty tons, as well as the most famous artifact of the entire site, which is the monumental “Gateway of the Sun”, incorporating the image of the “weeping god”.
This gateway has been carved from a single block of andesite, and has been cut to form a large doorway with niches on either side. Above the doorway is an elaborate bas-relief of the central deity, believed by the local Indians to have been their Creator-God Viracocha.
The deity is flanked on either side by thirty intricately carved glyphs, known as Chasquis, as well as a row of eleven other icons that are carved along the bottom of the panel. Another feature of the Kalasasaya temple is the “calendar wall”, consisting of ten large stone pillars set in a modern wall.
An important point that visitors to Tiwanaku should bear in mind, is that the entire area was reconstructed by archaeologists in the 20th century. So most of what can be seen in the Kalasasaya courtyard today bears little resemblance to what was originally found, but rather reflects what these archaeologists thought would make the most impressive memorial.
The cyclopean ruins of Puma Punku
Finally, there is the site located about a mile away from the main temple complex known as Puma Punku (Door of the Puma). This consists of little more than a series of scattered blocks of stone, except for the fact that some of these stones weigh anywhere from 100 to 150 tons!
Confronted with megalithic ruins of such complexity and size, modern historians were challenged to come up with a history that would explain them, especially since they were so dramatically different from anything else found on the South American continent.
The history they devised is the history that is taught to every schoolchild in Bolivia today, and is a source of immense national pride. The following is an extract from a local travel guide which gives a popular rendering of the story that historians came up with.
“This civilization arose in the 6th century BC, and local Indian legends described the city as the capital of the bearded white god Wiracocha.
“Tiahuanaco endured a thousand years more than Rome, and almost 2000 years more than the Inca civilization that built Machu Picchu. Moreover, the inhabitants had developed a system of agriculture that turned barren Altiplano land into the breadbasket of their society.
“The city of Tiahuanaco, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between 500 and 900 AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilization, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.
“The classic, or fourth period (300-700 AD), is perhaps the most dramatic, with its huge stone structures that watch over the site today.
“During its peak, the capital of Tiwanaku boasted a huge stone-faced pyramid, cut stone enclosures, elite residences, exquisitely decorated buildings, a system of subterranean canals, and at least four square kilometers of residential buildings.
“The Tiwanaku imperial economy was based on the intensive utilization of raised fields, camelid pastoralism, terrace agriculture, an extensive exchange and colonial system, and the organization of large numbers of laborers for state projects. There was a rigid social and political hierarchy expressed in elaborate art and architectural styles.
“The ruins of Tiahuanaco bear striking witness to the power of the empire that played a leading role in the development of the Andean pre-Hispanic civilization.
“The buildings of Tiahuanaco are exceptional examples of the ceremonial and public architecture and are of one of the most important manifestations of the civilizations of the Andean region.
“Clearly, the ruins of Tiahuanaco show a great ceremonial center, and a city that numbered, at its height, more than 20,000 inhabitants. Researchers have divided this civilization into five distinct periods.
“The civilization seems to have totally vanished by 1200AD.” (View Source)
The history outlined above tells an inspiring tale of humble beginnings that lead on to greatness – of imposing architecture, sophisticated engineering and advanced agriculture that speak of the glories of a now vanished era. The unfortunate truth is that all of this is “pure bunk”.
The idea that a powerful Bolivian pre-Hispanic empire once dominated the region for thousands of years is complete fiction. There was no great capital city housing 20,000 citizens, no elite residences, no decorated buildings, and certainly no agriculture that turned the barren Altiplano (high plateau) into a giant breadbasket.
The droll part about this so-called “history”, was that archaeologists and historians had to frame their history of Tiwanaku to conform to the current scientific paradigm, which holds that the earliest civilization on the planet began 5,000 years ago with the Sumerian and Egyptian cultures.
So operating within this paradigm, historians came up with a scenario beginning in the 6th century BC, and ending with the mysterious disappearance of the entire Tiwanaku culture in the 12th century AD, thus conveniently disposing of it before the arrival of the Incas of Peru, early in the 13th century AD.
Yet if these scientists had been prepared to undertake an honest enquiry into the evidence, they would have found some interesting facts which point to the likelihood that, many thousands of years ago, Tiwanaku was originally located at sea level, at that it was at one time a flourishing seaport.
The first fact is that the ruins of Tiwanaku are at an altitude of over 12,000 feet (3,650 metres) above sea level. This is an altitude where most plants will not grow, and corn in particular will not ripen. Its average annual temperature is 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7.7 degrees C), with an average annual rainfall of 24 inches (630 mm).
Agricultural terraces above Lake Titicaca
Based on this evidence alone, it is clear that the present location of Tiwanaku could not possibly have supported an advanced civilization involving tens of thousands of people, especially since some of the agricultural terraces that surround the existing ruins reach as high as 18,000 feet.
The second interesting fact concerns Lake Titicaca, located just a few miles to the west of Tiwanaku. Although it is considered to be the world’s highest fresh water lake, in earlier times it was an inland salt water sea, before being suddenly thrust up to its present height of 12,500 feet (3,800 metres) above sea level.
This is borne out by the fact that the shoreline of the lake is littered with millions of fossilized seashells. It also still retains a slightly saline content, which accounts for the fact that ocean dwelling fish, as well as creatures such as seahorses, continue to be caught in the lake to this day.
Lake Titicaca drains to the south along the Altiplano plateau, spreading out over the Desaguadero Basin and on toward Lake Poopó. If the lake actually had been filled with sea water in earlier times, we should expect to find evidence of evaporated salt deposits in the region, and that is exactly what we do find.
The great salt lake of Salar de Uyuni
One of the most spectacular features in all of Bolivia is the Salar de Uyuni. It is the world’s largest dried up salt bed. It covers an area of over 4,000 square miles (10,500 square kms), which is one third of the size of Belgium, or twenty-five times larger than the famous Bonneville salt flats in Utah.
The crust that is found on the surface of Salar de Uyuni has a thickness of about 33 feet (10 metres), and is made up of eleven separate layers. It is estimated that the dry lake itself contains about ten billion tons of salt, as well as being the world’s richest source of lithium.
The existence of all this salt lends credibility to the theory that Tiwanaku was once a seawater port. And nowhere is there better evidence of this than in the megalithic blocks of stone that can be found at Puma Punku, situated a short distance away from the main ceremonial centre of the city, as can be seen from the following video.
Exquisite designs carved into the polished granite
Whereas the main ruins of Tiwanaku are clearly linked with the ceremonial, religious and social focus of this ancient culture, the gigantic blocks of stone that lie strewn all over the plateau at Puma Punku are distinctly different. They seem to possess a unique character of their own.
These megalithic stones are bluish-gray in colour, and generate a metallic tone when struck. They also appear to be the product of an advanced system of technology, as individual blocks have exquisitely cut edges and indentations in a variety of patterns and designs.
Recessed double-crucifix design
One of the most common of these indentations is the symbol of the cross, a double-crucifix design deeply recessed into the granite with pure, clean lines, which could only have been produced with the aid of highly sophisticated stone-cutting tools. Other motifs include arrows, circles and niches unlike anything seen at Tiwanaku.
Easily the most striking feature of the entire site are the gargantuan precision-made H-blocks made of andesite that once formed the walls. Each of these stones is so intricately carved that it has about 80 different surfaces, yet each of these surfaces seems to have been polished into a perfectly smooth finish.
In assembling the walls of Puma Punku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with adjacent stones, and was designed to form load-bearing joints that fitted together without the use of mortar. These joints are so precise that not even a razor blade can fit between the stones.
Examples of the indentations carved in stone for the metal clamps that held these stones together
Another feature of the stonework at Puma Punku was the use of metal clamps or ties. For example, the side walls of the water channels were built with upright stone slabs held together with I-shaped metal clamps which were recessed into the stone.
When analysed in the laboratory, these clamps were found to be made of an unusual alloy, comprising copper, arsenic, nickel, silicon and iron. It is also worth mentioning here that this same system of using metal clamps was found at the Ahu Vinapu megalithic wall on Easter Island.
The entire site of Puma Punku speaks of an ancient civilisation suddenly afflicted by appalling tragedy, as catastrophic forces of nature devastated the region, destroying all but the few remnants that can be seen strewn around the site today.
Who can solve the riddle of my past?
The story of who these people were, how they built their cyclopean structures, and how they met their end, would appear to be lost forever in shrouded legends of antiquity. Yet there is one relic which could be the key to unravelling the mystery of the past. It is the magnificent Gateway of the Sun itself.
Dedicated to the “weeping God” Viracocha, whose tears can still be seen immortalised in stone, the Sun Gate stands in mute splendour as it gazes over the stark plateau of the Altiplano, inviting all who pass that way to solve the riddle of its past.
Science is serious business. Those who wish to pursue a career in any of the disciplines of science have to serve a rigorous apprenticeship. Not only do they have to get the necessary academic credentials, but they also have to uphold the traditional protocols of science.
And before they can gain the necessary recognition and credibility within their chosen field of science, graduates must first publish the results of their research in established scientific journals, in order to acquire funding or tenure at a recognized educational institution.
People do not enter the scientific profession from the world of entertainment or show business. Stars of shows like Saturday Night Live are not welcome. Stand up comedians need not apply. Nor are results of scientific research published in Vogue, Sports Illustrated or Rolling Stone Magazine.
So it is all the more surprising when scientists, apparently with a straight face, support ideas which appear to come directly from the script of a Monty Python Show, or a Disney fantasia. For this is what has happened in the case of Easter Island and its famous Moai, or carved stone statues.
It all began when geologists began to investigate what lay beneath the rolling grasslands that cover the major part of this tiny island. What they found proved to be a considerable surprise. It appeared that at one time in its past the island had been home to an abundant variety of plant and marine life.
Example of giant palm tree
Scientists who have studied the ecology of Easter Island have found fossilised evidence indicating that the island was once covered by subtropical moist broadleaf forests, including three species of palm trees which grew up to fifty feet in size.
They also found evidence that the island had earlier possessed a range of shrubs, ferns and grasses that have long since disappeared, along with at least six species of native land birds and twenty-five different species of sub-arctic and tropical seabirds.
The challenge that confronted these scientists was how to account for the loss of such an abundant variety of fauna and flora, and for the environmental degradation brought about by the extreme deforestation that is so evident on the island today.
In other words, if Easter Island once had such a rich heritage of plant and marine life, then what happened to it, and was this in any way linked with the stone statues that littered the island? One man who believed he knew the answer to these questions was an American scientist named Jared Diamond.
Now Diamond was not just some amateur hack or interloper into fields in which he had no expertise. He was a man of impeccable credentials. In fact he is often referred to today as “America’s best known geographer”.
Born in Boston in 1937, Diamond earned a BA degree at Harvard and followed this up with a PhD at Trinity College at the University of Cambridge, England, in 1961. He has since had a glittering academic career, and received numerous different Honours and Awards, including the Pulitzer Prize.
One of the subjects that has occupied Diamond’s attention in recent years has been the enigma of why certain societies succeed, and why others fail. His research into this field culminated in the publication in 2005 of his book: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
In this book Diamond examined a range of historical societies in an attempt to identify the reasons why some of them flourished and others failed. He listed eight environmental factors that he believed had led to the collapse of certain human societies in the past.
The desolate landscape of Easter Island
He claimed that the most important reason was deforestation and habitat destruction, followed by soil erosion, salinization and loss of soil fertility. Diamond quoted Easter Island as the prime example of a society that had collapsed due to the environmental damage that the islanders had brought upon themselves.
When he began his research into the history of Easter Island, Dr. Diamond naturally assumed that the ancestors of the present inhabitants of the island were the original sculptors of the giant Moai that lay scattered all over the island.
He suggested that the first settlement on Easter Island had taken place some twelve hundred years before at the Caleta Anakena landing point, as it provided the best shelter from prevailing swells, as well as a sandy beach that was ideal for canoe launchings and landings.
Anakena Beach on Easter Island
Whoever these early settlers happened to be, and wherever they happened to hail from, they apparently flourished. And in time, so the theory went, the population of Easter Island grew to a significant number, thought to be perhaps as many as ten to fifteen thousand people at the high point of their culture.
What happened next is still a matter of conjecture and debate, but at some point in those early years, the inhabitants apparently discovered that the volcanic rock that lay exposed on the flanks of Rano Raraku crater could be sculpted with the use of primitive rock tools.
And so began the era of the Moai, in which stone statues carved in stylized human shapes began to be cut out of the living rock. These statues were then transported to different sites all over the island, where they were placed upon stone platforms called Ahus.
While most scientists today are content to accept this hypothesis without question, we need to bear in mind that no other Polynesian society has ever had the desire to carve statues in stone, let alone those of such extraordinary shape and size.
But even if the local inhabitants had somehow managed to carve these enormous statues, some of which weighed up to fifty tons, they were then faced with the challenge of transporting them. And this is where the so-called “history” of Easter Island starts to become a trifle bizarre.
Rano Raraku crater where the giant Moai were carved
According to Diamond, the inhabitants then began to cut down the trees on the island for a variety of reasons. Some of them were burnt down to provide land for agriculture, some used as firewood, while others were used to transport these Moai to their chosen destinations.
While this scenario may seem plausible enough in theory, it hardly stands up to critical analysis. Given the size of most of these statues, it would surely have taken local sculptors many months to carve even a single statue out of the side of the volcanic crater.
So when each individual statue was completed, there would have been ample time for a separate transportation crew to move it to its assigned location, while the sculptors set to work carving the next Moai. And so on and so on.
After all, if the inhabitants were clever enough to carve these statues in the first place, they should have had the nous to realize that one or two sets of timber would be all that would be needed to transport each to its chosen destination, if that is in fact how these statues were moved.
There would be absolutely no need to cut down entire swathes of palm trees in order to build up a vast stockpile of logs. They could simply keep on using the same logs, and only when these finally wore out would it be necessary to replace them.
But as the story goes, different clans now began to compete among themselves to see who could build the largest Moai. This led to the need for more and more logs to transport all these Moai, causing the islanders to denude the island by cutting down all the trees.
And then there were the rats.
Apparently, the earliest settlers not only arrived in their canoes with cargoes of men, women and children. They also brought with them Polynesian rats. And according to the historians, these rats went forth and multiplied until they infested the entire island.
Over the years these rats apparently found themselves short of their natural diet, so they turned on the giant palm trees and gnawed at their roots, causing them to die. So between the islanders and the rats, the island became denuded of foliage, leading to the destruction of their entire ecosystem.
Finally, with starvation looming, different clans on the island began to fight among themselves. And instead of worshipping the Moai as they had done previously, they now began to destroy them, which accounted for the stone ruins that existed around the coastline of the island.
In the end, according to Diamond, those few people who were left on the island turned to cannibalism to survive, as evidenced by wooden carvings showing people with gaunt faces and pronounced ribcages. The destruction of their society, and with it the former glory of Easter Island, was now complete.
For all his credentials and awards, Jared Diamond must assume part of the responsibility for perpetuating the myth that Easter Island was an example of a failed society that had collapsed due to environmental deterioration which the islanders brought upon themselves.
Instead, it is an example of that old bromide: There are none so blind as those who will not see. The problem lies not with the disappearing palm trees of Easter Island. It rests squarely with those scientists and scholars who, in spite of their vast intellect and education, simply cannot tell the wood from the trees.
The truth is that Easter Island was a desolate and windy place long before the first Polynesians arrived. There were no lush forests to greet them, and what little bird and marine life there was provided a meagre existence for those few who could adapt to the spartan conditions.
Ancient Moai lay buried around the island
There were, however, plenty of stone statues to be found all over the island. They had been there for ages, perhaps even for tens of thousands of years, staring sightlessly over the horizon, and bearing mute testimony to the civilization that had built them.
When the first western explorer, Admiral Jacob Roggeveen, arrived on Easter Island in April 1722, he found the islanders living in thatched huts, and surviving off a diet of bananas and fish, as well as South American plants like yucca and sweet potato.
Roggeveen described them as being heavily tattooed, with their earlobes hanging down to their shoulders. They seemed to be in robust health, and there was no evidence that they had recently undergone any sort of social crisis leading to a descent into cannibalism.
This was borne out by a study conducted by Douglas Owsley in 1994, indicating that the bone pathology and osteometric data taken from the islanders of that period showed no sign of pre-European collapse, and little evidence that any fatalities could be attributed directly to violence.
So what could have happened to all those lush forests that geologists insist had once covered the island, along with the abundant marine life and all the tropical seabirds, whose fossils now lay buried beneath the soil?
The short answer is that they were all victims of gigantic tsunamis that had swept across the island, as a result of a global cataclysm that had engulfed the entire Pacific Ocean at some time in the distant past.
In Part One of this series, we discussed James Churchward’s claim that an ancient civilization known as Lemuria had once existed on a continent in the Pacific Ocean. According to Churchward, this entire continent sank beneath the waves as a result of a series of catastrophes.
When Charles Darwin undertook his five-year voyage around the world (1831 – 1836), he kept a daily record of his findings. These notes were later published under the title Journal of Researches. In it he had this to say about the profusion of species that appeared to have suddenly become extinct.
“It is impossible to reflect on the changed state of the American continent without the deepest astonishment. Formerly, it must have swarmed with great monsters: now we find mere pigmies, compared with the antecedent, allied races.”
“Certainly, no fact in the long history of the world is so startling as the wide and repeated exterminations of its inhabitants.”
“What, then, has exterminated so many species and whole genera? The mind at first is irresistibly hurried into the belief of some great catastrophe; but thus to destroy animals, both large and small, in Southern Patagonia, in Brazil, on the Cordillera of Peru, in North America up to Behring’s Straits, we must shake the entire framework of the globe.”
For Darwin, even the thought of a catastrophe large enough to engulf the entire world was sufficient for him to dismiss the possibility outright. But had he visited Easter Island, he would have found yet more fossilised evidence to add to that found in Southern Patagonia, Brazil, Peru and North America up to the Bering Straits.
It would seem that the fossil evidence mentioned by Darwin supports Churchward’s claim that something catastrophic did happen in the distant past of our planet, and that this had the effect of wiping out entire species of animals, plants and birds that existed at that time.
Excavated statue showing the depth of the soil
It should also have been obvious to a geographer of the calibre of Jared Diamond, that the Polynesian settlers could not possibly have built the great stone statues found on Easter Island. And the reason is simple. Most of them are buried up to their necks in soil.
The real mystery surrounding the great stone statues of Easter Island is not so much who built them, but why whoever did so would go to the all the trouble of carving them out of the side of a mountain, only to bury them later under huge amounts of loam and clay.
A sufficient number of these Moai have now been excavated to show that their torsos have been covered in soil, in some cases up to a depth of 20 – 30 feet. And the heads of others that still lie buried on the flanks of Rano Raraku crater can barely be seen above the soil.
Moai buried up to their necks in soil peer out at odd angles on the flanks of Rano Raraku crater
But the statues that can be seen in the interior of the island today no longer stand erect on their stone platforms. Instead these Moai lie buried in helter-skelter fashion, with their heads and torsos staring out of the soil at a variety of odd angles. It is clear that they were never intended to be that way.
The key topographical feature of the island is that it is not only the statues that have been covered with so many feet of clay, but that most of the island has been buried under the soil as well, as can be seen from the accompanying illustrations.
The heads of these Moai are barely visible today above the soil
It is evident that the statues had to have been carved at some time before the arrival of the soil. And so the critical question becomes, where did all the soil come from? And the answer is that it can only have come from the craters above, or from the sea below.
While volcanoes are certainly capable of spewing out vast quantities of lava and ash that can blanket the surrounding land, the soil on Easter Island does not consist of pumice or ash, and none of the craters on the island have erupted since the Polynesians arrived.
So the most likely scenario is that this soil was the residue left behind after a series of enormous tsunamis had swept across the island, destroying everything in their path, including the palm trees, shrubs, ferns and grasses, animals and birds.
And the enormous stone Moai, that formerly stood proudly upon their stone platforms, would have been caught up in this tide of debris as well. Those at the sea shore would have been smashed into pieces, while those inland would have been swept along and dumped on the sides of the highest hills.
As an example of the power of the ocean, a severe earthquake off the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960, generated a tsunami over 25 feet (8 metres) high that completely destroyed the remains of Ahu Tongariki, and swept fifteen statues weighing over forty tons about 500 yards (150 metres) inland.
This would also account for all the broken Moai that can still be seen on the coastline of Easter Island today, without having to concoct extravagant stories of wars between clans, leading to the wilful destruction of the stone statues, especially since they had never built them in the first place.
Unfinished statue at Rano Raraku crater
The scenario painted by Churchward also parallels the scene witnessed by Thor Heyerdahl when he first visited Rano Raraku crater, mentioned earlier. He said that it appeared as if the sculptors had suddenly stopped what they were doing, and fled leaving their tools behind them.
Quite apart from the mysteries surrounding the construction of these stone statues, there is also the enigma of the “Bird-man” petroglyphs, the extraordinary hieroglyphic writing known as Rongorongo, and the cyclopean stone wall located at Ahu Vinapu.
One wonders, if James Churchward were still alive, what he would make of those strange Rongorongo glyphs that have been found on the island, and whether they might have been similar to the Naga-Maya script on the clay tablets that were shown to him by that temple priest in India.
It would seem far more plausible to conclude that all of these were the product of a highly sophisticated civilization, rather than the supposed creations of a handful of Polynesian natives stuck on a desolate island thousands of miles from the nearest habitation.
Sadly, the current scientific paradigm continues to remain convinced that modern civilization began some five thousand years ago with the cultures of Sumeria and Egypt.
So the idea that the Pacific Ocean might once have been home to a mighty civilization that perished in a global catastrophe perhaps tens of thousands of years ago, is dismissed as an impossible myth.
Yet there is a haunting quality about Easter Island that continues to tantalise and attract mystery seekers from all around the world. They come to the island to gaze in wonder at those silent stone sentinels that stand brooding over the landscape. The mystery of their origin still beckons to us today.
If only the silent Moai could speak.
When the sixteenth century English poet John Donne penned the famous words “No man is an island”, he used the image of a tiny island, lost in a vast ocean and cut off from everything else in the world, to convey the idea of complete and total isolation.
The Lost Island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
There is perhaps no better example of what Donne had in mind than the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui, or to give it its modern name, Easter Island. Unlike so many islands located in other parts of the Pacific Ocean, Easter Island is not an archipelago or chain of islands.
Instead, it is a tiny outcrop of volcanic rock with nothing but open ocean around it for thousands of miles in every direction. In fact the nearest inhabited land is Pitcairn Island some 1,300 miles (2,800 kms) away, while its nearest continental neighbour is central Chile, almost 2,200 miles (3,500 kms) to the East.
Easter Island is minute. It is shaped in the form of a triangle, with an extinct volcano located at each of the three corners. It is roughly 15 miles (24 kms) long and 7.6 miles (12.3 kms) wide. It has no permanent streams or rivers, so locals must rely on rain-filled lakes for drinking water.
Given its extreme isolation, its lack of resources and the distance from surrounding land, it is remarkable that it was ever able to sustain human life. Yet when the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen first discovered it on Easter Sunday in1722, it was found to have a population estimated at between two and three thousand people of Polynesian origin.
The Stone Statues
The Stone Statues (Moai) of Easter Island
But what has made Easter Island such a conundrum to so many, and why it has become such a magnet for mystery seekers ever since, is that it was found to be the home of about 900 stone statues called Moai, that were carved in stylized human form.
Most of these statues were carved from compressed volcanic ash, called Tuff. However, 13 Moai were found to be carved from Basalt, 22 from Trachyte (a type of igneous volcanic rock), and 17 from fragile Red Scoria, found in various locations on the island.
The average height of these stone Moai was about 13 feet (4 metres), with a base of around 5 feet (1.5 metres), and the average weight of these stone statues was around 14 tons. However, a few of these massive creations towered over all the others.
The tallest Moai ever erected was called Paro. It was found to be almost 33 feet (10 metres) high, and weighed 82 tons. But even this was later dwarfed by another Moai known as “El Gigante”. This unfinished sculpture, still embedded in rock near the Rano Raraku quarry, would have been 69 feet (21 metres) tall when completed, with a weight of over 160 tons.
Early western visitors found it hard to comprehend how an island so small, with a population of a mere few thousand souls, could have constructed stone monuments on so massive a scale, especially when nothing like it was to be found anywhere else in the history of Polynesian culture.
One of the first westerners to draw attention to the mystery of the Moai was the Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl. In 1947, Heyerdahl and his crew were successful in sailing a hand-built balsa wood raft named the Kon-Tiki, from South America to the Tuamotu Islands in French Polynesia.
This 5,000 mile (8,000 kms) journey later brought Heyerdahl world-wide fame, when the story of his epic journey across the open ocean was published under the title The Kon-Tiki Expedition: By Raft Across the South Seas.
In 1955, Heyerdahl organized a team of professional archeologists drawn from different countries to travel to Easter Island, where they spent many months exploring various archeological sites. They also conducted experiments in the carving, transportation and erection of various stone Moai.
Moai Smashed Into Pieces
Heyerdahl’s team made two important discoveries. The first was that these stone statues fell into two groups. The first group comprised those Moai that were undamaged and still standing. The second group consisted of Moai that had been smashed into pieces.
The significant part of this discovery was that the undamaged Moai were found to be clustered around the inner and outer slopes of a volcanic crater known as Rano Raraku, where the majority of these statues had been carved, while the smashed statues were found at various points along the coastline of the island.
The second discovery of Heyerdahl’s team was that the heads of the statues that lay scattered around Rano Raraku crater were actually partially buried. And just like icebergs, whose major bulk lies hidden below the water, these stone statues were found to have torsos many times larger than their protruding heads.
Several of these partially buried Moai have subsequently been excavated, exposing the full extent of the bodies that previously lay hidden beneath the soil. They reveal heavy torsos with narrow arms carved in bas relief, and long slender fingers and thumbs that sometimes point to the navel.
In contrast with the undamaged statues located on the slopes of Rano Raraku crater, hardly any of those found along the sea shore were found to be intact. Often their heads were snapped from their bodies, and in some cases lay almost unrecognizable, being little more than a pile of stones.
It has only been through the enduring efforts of archeologists like the American William Mulloy and his protégé Sergio Rapu Haoa, Chilean Claudio Cristino, as well as the generous funding offered by various commercial corporations, that about 50 Moai have since been re-erected on their Ahus (stone platforms).
However, at the time of his visit in 1955, there was one particular feature which made a powerful impression on Heyerdahl and his team. That was state in which they found the quarry site at Rano Raraku crater.
As Heyerdahl later recorded in his book, from the chaos and disorder that was evident at the site, it appeared as if a sudden disaster had overtaken the island, causing the sculptors to cease what they were doing and flee from the site, leaving their stone tools and unfinished Moai behind them.
The Megalithic Wall
The Megalithic Wall at Ahu Vinapu
Yet another mystery that confronted Heyerdahl and his team, was the cyclopean stone wall that he discovered at a place called Ahu Vinapu, just to the east of what is now the main town of Hanga Roa, and situated not far from the end of the main airport runway.
Heyerdahl found that this partially destroyed wall was built out of enormous, polished, blocks of basalt that weighed up to seven tons each. Yet the stones of this wall fitted together so perfectly that they seemed capable of withstanding the power of even the strongest earthquake.
The megalithic wall located at Ahu Vinapu is unique. Not only is there no other site on Easter Island that can compare with it, but nothing that has been found on any of the other islands throughout the entire Pacific Ocean can match it for its precision, size and design.
The only type of construction that rivals it elsewhere on the planet are the pyramids of Egypt, and the cyclopean structures found in various parts of South America. This led Heyerdahl to speculate that the wall might be evidence of contact with South American cultures in the ancient past.
Bird-man Petroglyph at Orongo
Another feature of Easter Island that has led to widespread conjecture over the years is the enormous number of petroglyphs, or pictures, that have been carved into the rocks on nearly every available surface. In fact over 4,000 glyphs have now been catalogued at more than a thousand different sites.
Easter Island has by far the richest assortment of petroglyphs in all of Polynesia. They can be found displayed upon the rocks, inside caves, on the walls of houses, and in some cases have even been found carved upon the Moai themselves. They come in a wide variety of designs.
These designs are sometimes representations of marine animals such as turtles, tuna, swordfish, sharks, whales and dolphins. In other cases they include such things as frigate birds, roosters and canoes. Although not as well known as the famous Moai, these petroglyphs were considered sacred images.
But those that have aroused the greatest interest are the famous “Bird-man” glyphs that can be found near the crater at Orongo. This emblem of Tangata Manu the Bird-man, consisted of a crouching human with the head of a bird, and was the symbol of a cult involving various clans on the island.
The most popular of these cult festivities was the annual Bird-man ritual, which was held on a narrow ridge with a deep crater on one side, and a thousand foot drop into the ocean on the other. The aim of this ritual was to be the first person to return with the egg of a Sooty Tern taken from the offshore islet below.
But what has made the Bird-man glyphs so significant, is that they were not only carved on the rocks around Easter Island, but that they also featured in one of the most enigmatic phenomena that have been found on Easter Island, and that is the mysterious form of writing known as Rongorongo.
This strange written script was first discovered in 1864 by the French missionary Eugene Eyraud. As he noted in his journal at the time:
“In every hut one finds wooden tablets or sticks covered in several sorts of hieroglyphic characters: They are depictions of animals unknown on the island, which the natives draw with sharp stones.
“Each figure has its own name; but the scant attention they pay to these tablets leads me to think that these characters, remnants of some more primitive writing, are now for them a habitual practice which they keep without seeking its meaning.” (Eyraud 1866:71)
The script that Brother Eyraud found on those wooden tablets was referred to by the local natives as Rongorongo. According to the Rapanui language which they spoke, Rongorongo meant “to recite or chant out”, meaning that it was supposed to be recited or chanted out loud.
Four years after Eyraud first saw these wooden tablets on Easter Island, the Bishop of Tahiti received a gift of human hair wrapped around a small wooden board. When he found that the board was also covered in hieroglyphic writing, he recognized that this could be a discovery of profound importance.
He therefore wrote to Father Roussel on Easter island, asking him collect all the tablets that he could find, and to see whether any islanders remained who could interpret them. But Roussel reported that he could only recover a few, and that none of the natives left on the island knew how to read them.
To this day only about two dozen wooden objects bearing Rongorongo inscriptions remain. These heavily weathered and partially damaged records were collected in the late 19th century, and can now only be seen in museums and private collections.
None of these examples of Rongorongo writing can be found on Easter island today, although the possibility does exist that some may have been secreted away in lava tubes, or in family caves that adorn the sides of the Orongo crater.
What has made this script so perplexing was the fact that it was later found to have been written in a style of writing called reverse Boustrophedon, where successive lines are written alternately from right to left, turned upside down, and then from left to right.
A remarkable fact about this reverse Boustrophedon style of writing, was that it was also similar to that used by the ancient Greeks, the Etruscans and the Hittites, as well as in the Indus valley, by the long vanished cultures of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
Similarities Between Indus Valley and Easter Island (Rongorongo) Glyphs
What makes this association even more compelling is that many of the glyphs taken from Indus valley scripts are almost identical to those used in Rongorongo, as can be seen from the accompanying ilustration. (See photo)
The writing itself consisted of a series of glyphs, or stylized pictorial characters. These glyphs contained about 120 basic elements, composed of Bird-men in a variety of positions, as well as birds, animals, plants, celestial objects and geometrical shapes.
However, these basic elements could also be combined together to form up to 16,000 other glyphs. It soon became clear to linguistic scholars that Rongorongo was a highly complex and sophisticated form of writing. Yet even to this day it has never been deciphered.
Sadly, those few clan elders who were said to be still able to understand the Rongorongo script at the time of Reynaud soon succumbed, some as a result of the Peruvian slave raid of 1862, and others from the subsequent epidemics of smallpox and tuberculosis which the slave traders brought to the island.
Questions and Answers
The many mysteries that can be found on Easter Island raise the following critical questions:
- Who exactly built the stone statues on Easter Island?
- How did they carve them out of the solid rock?
- How did they transport them?
- When did they build them?
- Why did they build them?
- Did the same people who built the statues also carve the petroglyphs?
- Did these same people also build the megalithic wall at Ahu Vinapu?
- Were these same people responsible for creating the Rongorongo script?
Prior to his arrival on Easter Island, it is doubtful if Thor Heyerdahl was aware of James Churchward, or of his claim that there once had existed a vast continent in the Pacific Ocean that had been devastated by a series of cataclysms, and had sunk beneath the waves, as explained in Part One.
Cyclopean Stone Ruins at Sacsayhuaman in Peru
But even if he had been, it is likely that he would simply have dismissed Churchward’s theory as fictional legend. Because of the similarities in stonework found on the island with that of the Incas, Heyerdahl favoured the idea that the original stone builders had come to Easter Island from Peru.
However, modern archeologists have concluded that, because Polynesians were found living on Easter Island when Westerners explorers first arrived, that it must have been the Polynesians themselves who were responsible for all of these enigmatic features, from the statues to the petroglyphs and the writing,
According to this conventional theory, Easter Island was most likely first populated by Polynesian settlers, who arrived in their canoes and catamarans from other island chains in the Eastern Pacific, such as the Gambier Islands or the Marquesas Islands.
It was noted that when the British explorer James Cook called in at Easter Island in 1774, one of his crew members who came from Bora Bora in French Polynesia, was able to communicate with the islanders in his native language.
A report issued recently by National Geographic had this to say about the origins of Easter Island:
“It’s not clear when the islands were first settled; estimates range from A.D. 800 to 1200. It’s also not clear how quickly the island ecosystem was wrecked—but a major factor appears to be the cutting of millions of giant palms to clear fields or make fires.
“It is possible that Polynesian rats, arriving with human settlers, may have eaten enough seeds to help to decimate the trees. Either way, loss of the trees exposed the island’s rich volcanic soils to serious erosion. When Europeans arrived in 1722, they found the island mostly barren and its inhabitants few.”
The report went on to add this comment regarding the mysterious Moai:
“Rapa Nui’s mysterious moai statues stand in silence but speak volumes about the achievements of their creators… The effort to construct these monuments and move them around the island must have been considerable -but no one knows exactly why the Rapa Nui people undertook such a task.
“Most scholars suspect that the moai were created to honor ancestors, chiefs, or other important personages, However, no written and little oral history exists on the island, so it’s impossible to be certain.” (View Source)
So the real answer to the questions posed above is that no one knows for sure who built the amazing stone statues, or how they did so, or why. We also don’t know who carved the petroglyphs, or who created the sophisticated hieroglyphic script called Rongorongo.
Moai Restored by Western Archeologists
What we do know, however, is that the Polynesians themselves also do not know. We also know that similar stone Moai to those found on Easter Island have never been found on any of the other Pacific Islands that have been settled by the Polynesian people.
Furthermore, we know that all the fallen Moai that have been rebuilt on their traditional stone platforms, have been erected by western archeologists and not by the Polynesian inhabitants, who seem to express little interest in their care and preservation.
But, as we will discover in the following instalment, there is a possibility that all of the mysteries of Easter Island can be resolved if we examine the evidence detailed above from a different point of view – a point of view that validates the story told by James Churchward in his book The Lost Continent of Mu.