Signs and wonders will be seen – You know my tears – This is the hour – No man shall stop my plan – Trust me!
Follow the hand of God – I will reach for you – Take my hand – Walk with me – Praise the Lord!
You have been called – You are my witness – The Rapture is coming – I am the Light – Expect me!
This is the time of teaching – There shall be a Crusade – Prepare for me – I have risen – Embrace me!
A new day is coming – I am building a Temple – My Church is being restored – Read the signs – Stand!
“The Last Days of Tolemac” is a book of prophecy. It deals with events that are happening in the world today and shows how they fulfill prophecies that were made many centuries ago. The book is set out in a series of questions and answers, and explains in detail:
- What is about to happen to our planet
- Why these events are happening at this time
- What places on earth will be affected
- What the new world will be like
- What we can do to prepare
If you wish to read these prophecies Click Here
As the book explains, our world is about to be transformed. We are about to experience “a new heaven and a new earth” where there will be no more suffering and no more pain. However all of us are faced with a choice. Do we wish to inherit the new world that is coming? Or will we fall victim to the catastrophes that will herald its arrival? What we need to do to survive is explained in the pages of this book.
For the information of readers, The Last Days of Tolemac is now available on Kindle Books as a Digital Download, as well as Allan’s major work entitled The Cosmic Web.
The Cosmic Web explains the mysteries of life, and shows how we all have within us hidden powers that will transform our lives in the coming age. Many of the stories that appear on this Blog, as well as articles on esoteric aspects of life, have been taken from this book. And as usual with Kindle books, if you click on the cover of either book, you can read part of the contents for free.
Both books can be accessed here
Allan Colston can be contacted at Tolemac@shaw.ca
For the benefit of readers who might be looking for information on specific subjects related to prophecy, the following articles have been included here for easy reference. They can be found in “Articles” listed under the heading “Categories” in the column on the right:
- The Apocalypse Unveiled
- The Rapture Revealed
- The Lost Years of Jesus
- The New Golden Age
- The Last Pope
- The Death of the Pope
- The Doomsday Prophecies
- 2012 and the Maya Calendar
- The Kachina Prophecies of the Hopi
- Rebuilding the Temple of Solomon
- What is “Wormwood” in the Book of Revelation?
- What is “Mystery Babylon” in the Book of Revelation?
New York Times – October 28, 1921
In a news article published by the New York Times on October 28, 1921, the famed American automobile magnate Henry Ford made the memorable comment, which has since been repeated innumerable times, when he said: History is bunk!
Now Henry Ford’s remark was directed more toward his attitude that events that happen in the present are more important than things that have happened in the past. But there was more wisdom in his words than he might have imagined at the time.
In an essay devoted to this point, noted columnist Patrick Lockerby wrote:
“In archaeology and library research you can make a claim based on the easy pickings that lie on the surface or you can break into a sweat as you dig deeper. But it is not enough to dig deep. You must sift every spadeful, and sift it fine. Truth is most often found in the tiniest of grains: it is easy to miss if you don’t focus intently.” (View Source)
His point goes to the very heart of the historical dilemma. The history of the past is invariably written, and rewritten, by the historians of the present. And it is often their misinformed education of the present which leads to their deformed view of the past.
And it is in this sense that much of what has been written about the past is often “pure bunk”. An example of this was provided in the previous instalment in the history of Easter Island, which reads like the script from a soap opera, replete with jealousy, vengeance, war, starvation and ultimately cannibalism and death.
And all this simply because those historians who concocted the history of Easter Island prior to the arrival of Westerners, neglected to attend to the vital point mentioned by Lockerby, when he said: Truth is most often found in the tiniest of grains.
In the case of Easter Island, archaeologists, historians, geographers and a host of other scientists all missed the crucial clue, which was that the key to understanding the mystery of its past lay in solving the riddle of the soil that covers the entire island. How was it deposited and when?
But there is an even better example of a conundrum posed by a mysterious set of ancient ruins, which has also been mangled by archaeologists and historians, who have once again allowed the “easy pickings that lie on the surface” to blind them to the truth that lay beneath.
Part of the reconstructed ruins of Tiwanaku
These ruins can be found today in the South American country of Bolivia, on the flanks of the Andes mountains, and are located just 45 miles (72 kms) from the modern city of La Paz. These ruins lie within the boundaries of the municipality of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco).
The ruins of Tiwanaku may be small in size, yet they provide a stunning display of ancient megalithic architecture, engineering and geometry that clearly supersedes anything else of its era. In fact, in designating this a World Heritage site in the year 2000, UNESCO noted:
“The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between 500 and 900 AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilisation, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.” (View Source)
The ruins themselves can roughly be divided into four separate areas. The first is what is known as the pyramid of Akapana. Then there is the area of the semi-underground temple. This is located in front of the area of the ceremonial courtyard of Kalasasaya. Finally there is the area known as Puma Punku.
The Akapana pyramid is perhaps something of a misnomer, as it is a blend between the step pyramids of Mexico and the pyramids of Egypt. Shaped more in the form of a rectangular cross, it consists of seven different levels, each with its own stone retaining wall, and rises to a height of about 55 feet (18 metres).
However, only the lowest level and part of the second have been excavated from the earth that covers it. Investigations suggest that the entire pyramid was once clad in blocks of red sandstone. The whole structure is surrounded by well-preserved drainage canals.
The area of the small semi-subterranean temple is accessed by a series of descending steps. The temple itself is made up of 48 pillars made of red sandstone. Its most notable feature are the many styles of carved stone heads that are set into the surrounding walls.
In the centre of the underground temple stands a carved stone monolith known as “El Fraile” (The Friar). This statue was carved out of red andesite, a type of very hard granite that is common to the region.
Situated to the side of the Akapana pyramid is a large courtyard and ceremonial platform known as the Kalasasaya. The courtyard is over three hundred feet long. It is entered through a flight of seven steps cut into the centre of the eastern wall, leading to an imposing gateway made out of enormous blocks of stone.
The imposing Gateway of the Sun
The interior of the courtyard contains two carved monoliths, one of which weighs over twenty tons, as well as the most famous artifact of the entire site, which is the monumental “Gateway of the Sun”, incorporating the image of the “weeping god”.
This gateway has been carved from a single block of andesite, and has been cut to form a large doorway with niches on either side. Above the doorway is an elaborate bas-relief of the central deity, believed by the local Indians to have been their Creator-God Viracocha.
The deity is flanked on either side by thirty intricately carved glyphs, known as Chasquis, as well as a row of eleven other icons that are carved along the bottom of the panel. Another feature of the Kalasasaya temple is the “calendar wall”, consisting of ten large stone pillars set in a modern wall.
An important point that visitors to Tiwanaku should bear in mind, is that the entire area was reconstructed by archaeologists in the 20th century. So most of what can be seen in the Kalasasaya courtyard today bears little resemblance to what was originally found, but rather reflects what these archaeologists thought would make the most impressive memorial.
The cyclopean ruins of Puma Punku
Finally, there is the site located about a mile away from the main temple complex known as Puma Punku (Door of the Puma). This consists of little more than a series of scattered blocks of stone, except for the fact that some of these stones weigh anywhere from 100 to 150 tons!
Confronted with megalithic ruins of such complexity and size, modern historians were challenged to come up with a history that would explain them, especially since they were so dramatically different from anything else found on the South American continent.
The history they devised is the history that is taught to every schoolchild in Bolivia today, and is a source of immense national pride. The following is an extract from a local travel guide which gives a popular rendering of the story that historians came up with.
“This civilization arose in the 6th century BC, and local Indian legends described the city as the capital of the bearded white god Wiracocha.
“Tiahuanaco endured a thousand years more than Rome, and almost 2000 years more than the Inca civilization that built Machu Picchu. Moreover, the inhabitants had developed a system of agriculture that turned barren Altiplano land into the breadbasket of their society.
“The city of Tiahuanaco, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between 500 and 900 AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilization, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.
“The classic, or fourth period (300-700 AD), is perhaps the most dramatic, with its huge stone structures that watch over the site today.
“During its peak, the capital of Tiwanaku boasted a huge stone-faced pyramid, cut stone enclosures, elite residences, exquisitely decorated buildings, a system of subterranean canals, and at least four square kilometers of residential buildings.
“The Tiwanaku imperial economy was based on the intensive utilization of raised fields, camelid pastoralism, terrace agriculture, an extensive exchange and colonial system, and the organization of large numbers of laborers for state projects. There was a rigid social and political hierarchy expressed in elaborate art and architectural styles.
“The ruins of Tiahuanaco bear striking witness to the power of the empire that played a leading role in the development of the Andean pre-Hispanic civilization.
“The buildings of Tiahuanaco are exceptional examples of the ceremonial and public architecture and are of one of the most important manifestations of the civilizations of the Andean region.
“Clearly, the ruins of Tiahuanaco show a great ceremonial center, and a city that numbered, at its height, more than 20,000 inhabitants. Researchers have divided this civilization into five distinct periods.
“The civilization seems to have totally vanished by 1200AD.” (View Source)
The history outlined above tells an inspiring tale of humble beginnings that lead on to greatness – of imposing architecture, sophisticated engineering and advanced agriculture that speak of the glories of a now vanished era. The unfortunate truth is that all of this is “pure bunk”.
The idea that a powerful Bolivian pre-Hispanic empire once dominated the region for thousands of years is complete fiction. There was no great capital city housing 20,000 citizens, no elite residences, no decorated buildings, and certainly no agriculture that turned the barren Altiplano (high plateau) into a giant breadbasket.
The droll part about this so-called “history”, was that archaeologists and historians had to frame their history of Tiwanaku to conform to the current scientific paradigm, which holds that the earliest civilization on the planet began 5,000 years ago with the Sumerian and Egyptian cultures.
So operating within this paradigm, historians came up with a scenario beginning in the 6th century BC, and ending with the mysterious disappearance of the entire Tiwanaku culture in the 12th century AD, thus conveniently disposing of it before the arrival of the Incas of Peru, early in the 13th century AD.
Yet if these scientists had been prepared to undertake an honest enquiry into the evidence, they would have found some interesting facts which point to the likelihood that, many thousands of years ago, Tiwanaku was originally located at sea level, at that it was at one time a flourishing seaport.
The first fact is that the ruins of Tiwanaku are at an altitude of over 12,000 feet (3,650 metres) above sea level. This is an altitude where most plants will not grow, and corn in particular will not ripen. Its average annual temperature is 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7.7 degrees C), with an average annual rainfall of 24 inches (630 mm).
Agricultural terraces above Lake Titicaca
Based on this evidence alone, it is clear that the present location of Tiwanaku could not possibly have supported an advanced civilization involving tens of thousands of people, especially since some of the agricultural terraces that surround the existing ruins reach as high as 18,000 feet.
The second interesting fact concerns Lake Titicaca, located just a few miles to the west of Tiwanaku. Although it is considered to be the world’s highest fresh water lake, in earlier times it was an inland salt water sea, before being suddenly thrust up to its present height of 12,500 feet (3,800 metres) above sea level.
This is borne out by the fact that the shoreline of the lake is littered with millions of fossilized seashells. It also still retains a slightly saline content, which accounts for the fact that ocean dwelling fish, as well as creatures such as seahorses, continue to be caught in the lake to this day.
Lake Titicaca drains to the south along the Altiplano plateau, spreading out over the Desaguadero Basin and on toward Lake Poopó. If the lake actually had been filled with sea water in earlier times, we should expect to find evidence of evaporated salt deposits in the region, and that is exactly what we do find.
The great salt lake of Salar de Uyuni
One of the most spectacular features in all of Bolivia is the Salar de Uyuni. It is the world’s largest dried up salt bed. It covers an area of over 4,000 square miles (10,500 square kms), which is one third of the size of Belgium, or twenty-five times larger than the famous Bonneville salt flats in Utah.
The crust that is found on the surface of Salar de Uyuni has a thickness of about 33 feet (10 metres), and is made up of eleven separate layers. It is estimated that the dry lake itself contains about ten billion tons of salt, as well as being the world’s richest source of lithium.
The existence of all this salt lends credibility to the theory that Tiwanaku was once a seawater port. And nowhere is there better evidence of this than in the megalithic blocks of stone that can be found at Puma Punku, situated a short distance away from the main ceremonial centre of the city, as can be seen from the following video.
Exquisite designs carved into the polished granite
Whereas the main ruins of Tiwanaku are clearly linked with the ceremonial, religious and social focus of this ancient culture, the gigantic blocks of stone that lie strewn all over the plateau at Puma Punku are distinctly different. They seem to possess a unique character of their own.
These megalithic stones are bluish-gray in colour, and generate a metallic tone when struck. They also appear to be the product of an advanced system of technology, as individual blocks have exquisitely cut edges and indentations in a variety of patterns and designs.
Recessed double-crucifix design
One of the most common of these indentations is the symbol of the cross, a double-crucifix design deeply recessed into the granite with pure, clean lines, which could only have been produced with the aid of highly sophisticated stone-cutting tools. Other motifs include arrows, circles and niches unlike anything seen at Tiwanaku.
Easily the most striking feature of the entire site are the gargantuan precision-made H-blocks made of andesite that once formed the walls. Each of these stones is so intricately carved that it has about 80 different surfaces, yet each of these surfaces seems to have been polished into a perfectly smooth finish.
In assembling the walls of Puma Punku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with adjacent stones, and was designed to form load-bearing joints that fitted together without the use of mortar. These joints are so precise that not even a razor blade can fit between the stones.
Examples of the indentations carved in stone for the metal clamps that held these stones together
Another feature of the stonework at Puma Punku was the use of metal clamps or ties. For example, the side walls of the water channels were built with upright stone slabs held together with I-shaped metal clamps which were recessed into the stone.
When analysed in the laboratory, these clamps were found to be made of an unusual alloy, comprising copper, arsenic, nickel, silicon and iron. It is also worth mentioning here that this same system of using metal clamps was found at the Ahu Vinapu megalithic wall on Easter Island.
The entire site of Puma Punku speaks of an ancient civilisation suddenly afflicted by appalling tragedy, as catastrophic forces of nature devastated the region, destroying all but the few remnants that can be seen strewn around the site today.
Who can solve the riddle of my past?
The story of who these people were, how they built their cyclopean structures, and how they met their end, would appear to be lost forever in shrouded legends of antiquity. Yet there is one relic which could be the key to unravelling the mystery of the past. It is the magnificent Gateway of the Sun itself.
Dedicated to the “weeping God” Viracocha, whose tears can still be seen immortalised in stone, the Sun Gate stands in mute splendour as it gazes over the stark plateau of the Altiplano, inviting all who pass that way to solve the riddle of its past.
Science is serious business. Those who wish to pursue a career in any of the disciplines of science have to serve a rigorous apprenticeship. Not only do they have to get the necessary academic credentials, but they also have to uphold the traditional protocols of science.
And before they can gain the necessary recognition and credibility within their chosen field of science, graduates must first publish the results of their research in established scientific journals, in order to acquire funding or tenure at a recognized educational institution.
People do not enter the scientific profession from the world of entertainment or show business. Stars of shows like Saturday Night Live are not welcome. Stand up comedians need not apply. Nor are results of scientific research published in Vogue, Sports Illustrated or Rolling Stone Magazine.
So it is all the more surprising when scientists, apparently with a straight face, support ideas which appear to come directly from the script of a Monty Python Show, or a Disney fantasia. For this is what has happened in the case of Easter Island and its famous Moai, or carved stone statues.
It all began when geologists began to investigate what lay beneath the rolling grasslands that cover the major part of this tiny island. What they found proved to be a considerable surprise. It appeared that at one time in its past the island had been home to an abundant variety of plant and marine life.
Example of giant palm tree
Scientists who have studied the ecology of Easter Island have found fossilised evidence indicating that the island was once covered by subtropical moist broadleaf forests, including three species of palm trees which grew up to fifty feet in size.
They also found evidence that the island had earlier possessed a range of shrubs, ferns and grasses that have long since disappeared, along with at least six species of native land birds and twenty-five different species of sub-arctic and tropical seabirds.
The challenge that confronted these scientists was how to account for the loss of such an abundant variety of fauna and flora, and for the environmental degradation brought about by the extreme deforestation that is so evident on the island today.
In other words, if Easter Island once had such a rich heritage of plant and marine life, then what happened to it, and was this in any way linked with the stone statues that littered the island? One man who believed he knew the answer to these questions was an American scientist named Jared Diamond.
Now Diamond was not just some amateur hack or interloper into fields in which he had no expertise. He was a man of impeccable credentials. In fact he is often referred to today as “America’s best known geographer”.
Born in Boston in 1937, Diamond earned a BA degree at Harvard and followed this up with a PhD at Trinity College at the University of Cambridge, England, in 1961. He has since had a glittering academic career, and received numerous different Honours and Awards, including the Pulitzer Prize.
One of the subjects that has occupied Diamond’s attention in recent years has been the enigma of why certain societies succeed, and why others fail. His research into this field culminated in the publication in 2005 of his book: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
In this book Diamond examined a range of historical societies in an attempt to identify the reasons why some of them flourished and others failed. He listed eight environmental factors that he believed had led to the collapse of certain human societies in the past.
The desolate landscape of Easter Island
He claimed that the most important reason was deforestation and habitat destruction, followed by soil erosion, salinization and loss of soil fertility. Diamond quoted Easter Island as the prime example of a society that had collapsed due to the environmental damage that the islanders had brought upon themselves.
When he began his research into the history of Easter Island, Dr. Diamond naturally assumed that the ancestors of the present inhabitants of the island were the original sculptors of the giant Moai that lay scattered all over the island.
He suggested that the first settlement on Easter Island had taken place some twelve hundred years before at the Caleta Anakena landing point, as it provided the best shelter from prevailing swells, as well as a sandy beach that was ideal for canoe launchings and landings.
Anakena Beach on Easter Island
Whoever these early settlers happened to be, and wherever they happened to hail from, they apparently flourished. And in time, so the theory went, the population of Easter Island grew to a significant number, thought to be perhaps as many as ten to fifteen thousand people at the high point of their culture.
What happened next is still a matter of conjecture and debate, but at some point in those early years, the inhabitants apparently discovered that the volcanic rock that lay exposed on the flanks of Rano Raraku crater could be sculpted with the use of primitive rock tools.
And so began the era of the Moai, in which stone statues carved in stylized human shapes began to be cut out of the living rock. These statues were then transported to different sites all over the island, where they were placed upon stone platforms called Ahus.
While most scientists today are content to accept this hypothesis without question, we need to bear in mind that no other Polynesian society has ever had the desire to carve statues in stone, let alone those of such extraordinary shape and size.
But even if the local inhabitants had somehow managed to carve these enormous statues, some of which weighed up to fifty tons, they were then faced with the challenge of transporting them. And this is where the so-called “history” of Easter Island starts to become a trifle bizarre.
Rano Raraku crater where the giant Moai were carved
According to Diamond, the inhabitants then began to cut down the trees on the island for a variety of reasons. Some of them were burnt down to provide land for agriculture, some used as firewood, while others were used to transport these Moai to their chosen destinations.
While this scenario may seem plausible enough in theory, it hardly stands up to critical analysis. Given the size of most of these statues, it would surely have taken local sculptors many months to carve even a single statue out of the side of the volcanic crater.
So when each individual statue was completed, there would have been ample time for a separate transportation crew to move it to its assigned location, while the sculptors set to work carving the next Moai. And so on and so on.
After all, if the inhabitants were clever enough to carve these statues in the first place, they should have had the nous to realize that one or two sets of timber would be all that would be needed to transport each to its chosen destination, if that is in fact how these statues were moved.
There would be absolutely no need to cut down entire swathes of palm trees in order to build up a vast stockpile of logs. They could simply keep on using the same logs, and only when these finally wore out would it be necessary to replace them.
But as the story goes, different clans now began to compete among themselves to see who could build the largest Moai. This led to the need for more and more logs to transport all these Moai, causing the islanders to denude the island by cutting down all the trees.
And then there were the rats.
Apparently, the earliest settlers not only arrived in their canoes with cargoes of men, women and children. They also brought with them Polynesian rats. And according to the historians, these rats went forth and multiplied until they infested the entire island.
Over the years these rats apparently found themselves short of their natural diet, so they turned on the giant palm trees and gnawed at their roots, causing them to die. So between the islanders and the rats, the island became denuded of foliage, leading to the destruction of their entire ecosystem.
Finally, with starvation looming, different clans on the island began to fight among themselves. And instead of worshipping the Moai as they had done previously, they now began to destroy them, which accounted for the stone ruins that existed around the coastline of the island.
In the end, according to Diamond, those few people who were left on the island turned to cannibalism to survive, as evidenced by wooden carvings showing people with gaunt faces and pronounced ribcages. The destruction of their society, and with it the former glory of Easter Island, was now complete.
For all his credentials and awards, Jared Diamond must assume part of the responsibility for perpetuating the myth that Easter Island was an example of a failed society that had collapsed due to environmental deterioration which the islanders brought upon themselves.
Instead, it is an example of that old bromide: There are none so blind as those who will not see. The problem lies not with the disappearing palm trees of Easter Island. It rests squarely with those scientists and scholars who, in spite of their vast intellect and education, simply cannot tell the wood from the trees.
The truth is that Easter Island was a desolate and windy place long before the first Polynesians arrived. There were no lush forests to greet them, and what little bird and marine life there was provided a meagre existence for those few who could adapt to the spartan conditions.
Ancient Moai lay buried around the island
There were, however, plenty of stone statues to be found all over the island. They had been there for ages, perhaps even for tens of thousands of years, staring sightlessly over the horizon, and bearing mute testimony to the civilization that had built them.
When the first western explorer, Admiral Jacob Roggeveen, arrived on Easter Island in April 1722, he found the islanders living in thatched huts, and surviving off a diet of bananas and fish, as well as South American plants like yucca and sweet potato.
Roggeveen described them as being heavily tattooed, with their earlobes hanging down to their shoulders. They seemed to be in robust health, and there was no evidence that they had recently undergone any sort of social crisis leading to a descent into cannibalism.
This was borne out by a study conducted by Douglas Owsley in 1994, indicating that the bone pathology and osteometric data taken from the islanders of that period showed no sign of pre-European collapse, and little evidence that any fatalities could be attributed directly to violence.
So what could have happened to all those lush forests that geologists insist had once covered the island, along with the abundant marine life and all the tropical seabirds, whose fossils now lay buried beneath the soil?
The short answer is that they were all victims of gigantic tsunamis that had swept across the island, as a result of a global cataclysm that had engulfed the entire Pacific Ocean at some time in the distant past.
In Part One of this series, we discussed James Churchward’s claim that an ancient civilization known as Lemuria had once existed on a continent in the Pacific Ocean. According to Churchward, this entire continent sank beneath the waves as a result of a series of catastrophes.
When Charles Darwin undertook his five-year voyage around the world (1831 – 1836), he kept a daily record of his findings. These notes were later published under the title Journal of Researches. In it he had this to say about the profusion of species that appeared to have suddenly become extinct.
“It is impossible to reflect on the changed state of the American continent without the deepest astonishment. Formerly, it must have swarmed with great monsters: now we find mere pigmies, compared with the antecedent, allied races.”
“Certainly, no fact in the long history of the world is so startling as the wide and repeated exterminations of its inhabitants.”
“What, then, has exterminated so many species and whole genera? The mind at first is irresistibly hurried into the belief of some great catastrophe; but thus to destroy animals, both large and small, in Southern Patagonia, in Brazil, on the Cordillera of Peru, in North America up to Behring’s Straits, we must shake the entire framework of the globe.”
For Darwin, even the thought of a catastrophe large enough to engulf the entire world was sufficient for him to dismiss the possibility outright. But had he visited Easter Island, he would have found yet more fossilised evidence to add to that found in Southern Patagonia, Brazil, Peru and North America up to the Bering Straits.
It would seem that the fossil evidence mentioned by Darwin supports Churchward’s claim that something catastrophic did happen in the distant past of our planet, and that this had the effect of wiping out entire species of animals, plants and birds that existed at that time.
Excavated statue showing the depth of the soil
It should also have been obvious to a geographer of the calibre of Jared Diamond, that the Polynesian settlers could not possibly have built the great stone statues found on Easter Island. And the reason is simple. Most of them are buried up to their necks in soil.
The real mystery surrounding the great stone statues of Easter Island is not so much who built them, but why whoever did so would go to the all the trouble of carving them out of the side of a mountain, only to bury them later under huge amounts of loam and clay.
A sufficient number of these Moai have now been excavated to show that their torsos have been covered in soil, in some cases up to a depth of 20 – 30 feet. And the heads of others that still lie buried on the flanks of Rano Raraku crater can barely be seen above the soil.
Moai buried up to their necks in soil peer out at odd angles on the flanks of Rano Raraku crater
But the statues that can be seen in the interior of the island today no longer stand erect on their stone platforms. Instead these Moai lie buried in helter-skelter fashion, with their heads and torsos staring out of the soil at a variety of odd angles. It is clear that they were never intended to be that way.
The key topographical feature of the island is that it is not only the statues that have been covered with so many feet of clay, but that most of the island has been buried under the soil as well, as can be seen from the accompanying illustrations.
The heads of these Moai are barely visible today above the soil
It is evident that the statues had to have been carved at some time before the arrival of the soil. And so the critical question becomes, where did all the soil come from? And the answer is that it can only have come from the craters above, or from the sea below.
While volcanoes are certainly capable of spewing out vast quantities of lava and ash that can blanket the surrounding land, the soil on Easter Island does not consist of pumice or ash, and none of the craters on the island have erupted since the Polynesians arrived.
So the most likely scenario is that this soil was the residue left behind after a series of enormous tsunamis had swept across the island, destroying everything in their path, including the palm trees, shrubs, ferns and grasses, animals and birds.
And the enormous stone Moai, that formerly stood proudly upon their stone platforms, would have been caught up in this tide of debris as well. Those at the sea shore would have been smashed into pieces, while those inland would have been swept along and dumped on the sides of the highest hills.
As an example of the power of the ocean, a severe earthquake off the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960, generated a tsunami over 25 feet (8 metres) high that completely destroyed the remains of Ahu Tongariki, and swept fifteen statues weighing over forty tons about 500 yards (150 metres) inland.
This would also account for all the broken Moai that can still be seen on the coastline of Easter Island today, without having to concoct extravagant stories of wars between clans, leading to the wilful destruction of the stone statues, especially since they had never built them in the first place.
Unfinished statue at Rano Raraku crater
The scenario painted by Churchward also parallels the scene witnessed by Thor Heyerdahl when he first visited Rano Raraku crater, mentioned earlier. He said that it appeared as if the sculptors had suddenly stopped what they were doing, and fled leaving their tools behind them.
Quite apart from the mysteries surrounding the construction of these stone statues, there is also the enigma of the “Bird-man” petroglyphs, the extraordinary hieroglyphic writing known as Rongorongo, and the cyclopean stone wall located at Ahu Vinapu.
One wonders, if James Churchward were still alive, what he would make of those strange Rongorongo glyphs that have been found on the island, and whether they might have been similar to the Naga-Maya script on the clay tablets that were shown to him by that temple priest in India.
It would seem far more plausible to conclude that all of these were the product of a highly sophisticated civilization, rather than the supposed creations of a handful of Polynesian natives stuck on a desolate island thousands of miles from the nearest habitation.
Sadly, the current scientific paradigm continues to remain convinced that modern civilization began some five thousand years ago with the cultures of Sumeria and Egypt.
So the idea that the Pacific Ocean might once have been home to a mighty civilization that perished in a global catastrophe perhaps tens of thousands of years ago, is dismissed as an impossible myth.
Yet there is a haunting quality about Easter Island that continues to tantalise and attract mystery seekers from all around the world. They come to the island to gaze in wonder at those silent stone sentinels that stand brooding over the landscape. The mystery of their origin still beckons to us today.
If only the silent Moai could speak.
When the sixteenth century English poet John Donne penned the famous words “No man is an island”, he used the image of a tiny island, lost in a vast ocean and cut off from everything else in the world, to convey the idea of complete and total isolation.
The Lost Island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
There is perhaps no better example of what Donne had in mind than the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui, or to give it its modern name, Easter Island. Unlike so many islands located in other parts of the Pacific Ocean, Easter Island is not an archipelago or chain of islands.
Instead, it is a tiny outcrop of volcanic rock with nothing but open ocean around it for thousands of miles in every direction. In fact the nearest inhabited land is Pitcairn Island some 1,300 miles (2,800 kms) away, while its nearest continental neighbour is central Chile, almost 2,200 miles (3,500 kms) to the East.
Easter Island is minute. It is shaped in the form of a triangle, with an extinct volcano located at each of the three corners. It is roughly 15 miles (24 kms) long and 7.6 miles (12.3 kms) wide. It has no permanent streams or rivers, so locals must rely on rain-filled lakes for drinking water.
Given its extreme isolation, its lack of resources and the distance from surrounding land, it is remarkable that it was ever able to sustain human life. Yet when the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen first discovered it on Easter Sunday in1722, it was found to have a population estimated at between two and three thousand people of Polynesian origin.
The Stone Statues
The Stone Statues (Moai) of Easter Island
But what has made Easter Island such a conundrum to so many, and why it has become such a magnet for mystery seekers ever since, is that it was found to be the home of about 900 stone statues called Moai, that were carved in stylized human form.
Most of these statues were carved from compressed volcanic ash, called Tuff. However, 13 Moai were found to be carved from Basalt, 22 from Trachyte (a type of igneous volcanic rock), and 17 from fragile Red Scoria, found in various locations on the island.
The average height of these stone Moai was about 13 feet (4 metres), with a base of around 5 feet (1.5 metres), and the average weight of these stone statues was around 14 tons. However, a few of these massive creations towered over all the others.
The tallest Moai ever erected was called Paro. It was found to be almost 33 feet (10 metres) high, and weighed 82 tons. But even this was later dwarfed by another Moai known as “El Gigante”. This unfinished sculpture, still embedded in rock near the Rano Raraku quarry, would have been 69 feet (21 metres) tall when completed, with a weight of over 160 tons.
Early western visitors found it hard to comprehend how an island so small, with a population of a mere few thousand souls, could have constructed stone monuments on so massive a scale, especially when nothing like it was to be found anywhere else in the history of Polynesian culture.
One of the first westerners to draw attention to the mystery of the Moai was the Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl. In 1947, Heyerdahl and his crew were successful in sailing a hand-built balsa wood raft named the Kon-Tiki, from South America to the Tuamotu Islands in French Polynesia.
This 5,000 mile (8,000 kms) journey later brought Heyerdahl world-wide fame, when the story of his epic journey across the open ocean was published under the title The Kon-Tiki Expedition: By Raft Across the South Seas.
In 1955, Heyerdahl organized a team of professional archeologists drawn from different countries to travel to Easter Island, where they spent many months exploring various archeological sites. They also conducted experiments in the carving, transportation and erection of various stone Moai.
Moai Smashed Into Pieces
Heyerdahl’s team made two important discoveries. The first was that these stone statues fell into two groups. The first group comprised those Moai that were undamaged and still standing. The second group consisted of Moai that had been smashed into pieces.
The significant part of this discovery was that the undamaged Moai were found to be clustered around the inner and outer slopes of a volcanic crater known as Rano Raraku, where the majority of these statues had been carved, while the smashed statues were found at various points along the coastline of the island.
The second discovery of Heyerdahl’s team was that the heads of the statues that lay scattered around Rano Raraku crater were actually partially buried. And just like icebergs, whose major bulk lies hidden below the water, these stone statues were found to have torsos many times larger than their protruding heads.
Several of these partially buried Moai have subsequently been excavated, exposing the full extent of the bodies that previously lay hidden beneath the soil. They reveal heavy torsos with narrow arms carved in bas relief, and long slender fingers and thumbs that sometimes point to the navel.
In contrast with the undamaged statues located on the slopes of Rano Raraku crater, hardly any of those found along the sea shore were found to be intact. Often their heads were snapped from their bodies, and in some cases lay almost unrecognizable, being little more than a pile of stones.
It has only been through the enduring efforts of archeologists like the American William Mulloy and his protégé Sergio Rapu Haoa, Chilean Claudio Cristino, as well as the generous funding offered by various commercial corporations, that about 50 Moai have since been re-erected on their Ahus (stone platforms).
However, at the time of his visit in 1955, there was one particular feature which made a powerful impression on Heyerdahl and his team. That was state in which they found the quarry site at Rano Raraku crater.
As Heyerdahl later recorded in his book, from the chaos and disorder that was evident at the site, it appeared as if a sudden disaster had overtaken the island, causing the sculptors to cease what they were doing and flee from the site, leaving their stone tools and unfinished Moai behind them.
The Megalithic Wall
The Megalithic Wall at Ahu Vinapu
Yet another mystery that confronted Heyerdahl and his team, was the cyclopean stone wall that he discovered at a place called Ahu Vinapu, just to the east of what is now the main town of Hanga Roa, and situated not far from the end of the main airport runway.
Heyerdahl found that this partially destroyed wall was built out of enormous, polished, blocks of basalt that weighed up to seven tons each. Yet the stones of this wall fitted together so perfectly that they seemed capable of withstanding the power of even the strongest earthquake.
The megalithic wall located at Ahu Vinapu is unique. Not only is there no other site on Easter Island that can compare with it, but nothing that has been found on any of the other islands throughout the entire Pacific Ocean can match it for its precision, size and design.
The only type of construction that rivals it elsewhere on the planet are the pyramids of Egypt, and the cyclopean structures found in various parts of South America. This led Heyerdahl to speculate that the wall might be evidence of contact with South American cultures in the ancient past.
Bird-man Petroglyph at Orongo
Another feature of Easter Island that has led to widespread conjecture over the years is the enormous number of petroglyphs, or pictures, that have been carved into the rocks on nearly every available surface. In fact over 4,000 glyphs have now been catalogued at more than a thousand different sites.
Easter Island has by far the richest assortment of petroglyphs in all of Polynesia. They can be found displayed upon the rocks, inside caves, on the walls of houses, and in some cases have even been found carved upon the Moai themselves. They come in a wide variety of designs.
These designs are sometimes representations of marine animals such as turtles, tuna, swordfish, sharks, whales and dolphins. In other cases they include such things as frigate birds, roosters and canoes. Although not as well known as the famous Moai, these petroglyphs were considered sacred images.
But those that have aroused the greatest interest are the famous “Bird-man” glyphs that can be found near the crater at Orongo. This emblem of Tangata Manu the Bird-man, consisted of a crouching human with the head of a bird, and was the symbol of a cult involving various clans on the island.
The most popular of these cult festivities was the annual Bird-man ritual, which was held on a narrow ridge with a deep crater on one side, and a thousand foot drop into the ocean on the other. The aim of this ritual was to be the first person to return with the egg of a Sooty Tern taken from the offshore islet below.
But what has made the Bird-man glyphs so significant, is that they were not only carved on the rocks around Easter Island, but that they also featured in one of the most enigmatic phenomena that have been found on Easter Island, and that is the mysterious form of writing known as Rongorongo.
This strange written script was first discovered in 1864 by the French missionary Eugene Eyraud. As he noted in his journal at the time:
“In every hut one finds wooden tablets or sticks covered in several sorts of hieroglyphic characters: They are depictions of animals unknown on the island, which the natives draw with sharp stones.
“Each figure has its own name; but the scant attention they pay to these tablets leads me to think that these characters, remnants of some more primitive writing, are now for them a habitual practice which they keep without seeking its meaning.” (Eyraud 1866:71)
The script that Brother Eyraud found on those wooden tablets was referred to by the local natives as Rongorongo. According to the Rapanui language which they spoke, Rongorongo meant “to recite or chant out”, meaning that it was supposed to be recited or chanted out loud.
Four years after Eyraud first saw these wooden tablets on Easter Island, the Bishop of Tahiti received a gift of human hair wrapped around a small wooden board. When he found that the board was also covered in hieroglyphic writing, he recognized that this could be a discovery of profound importance.
He therefore wrote to Father Roussel on Easter island, asking him collect all the tablets that he could find, and to see whether any islanders remained who could interpret them. But Roussel reported that he could only recover a few, and that none of the natives left on the island knew how to read them.
To this day only about two dozen wooden objects bearing Rongorongo inscriptions remain. These heavily weathered and partially damaged records were collected in the late 19th century, and can now only be seen in museums and private collections.
None of these examples of Rongorongo writing can be found on Easter island today, although the possibility does exist that some may have been secreted away in lava tubes, or in family caves that adorn the sides of the Orongo crater.
What has made this script so perplexing was the fact that it was later found to have been written in a style of writing called reverse Boustrophedon, where successive lines are written alternately from right to left, turned upside down, and then from left to right.
A remarkable fact about this reverse Boustrophedon style of writing, was that it was also similar to that used by the ancient Greeks, the Etruscans and the Hittites, as well as in the Indus valley, by the long vanished cultures of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
Similarities Between Indus Valley and Easter Island (Rongorongo) Glyphs
What makes this association even more compelling is that many of the glyphs taken from Indus valley scripts are almost identical to those used in Rongorongo, as can be seen from the accompanying ilustration. (See photo)
The writing itself consisted of a series of glyphs, or stylized pictorial characters. These glyphs contained about 120 basic elements, composed of Bird-men in a variety of positions, as well as birds, animals, plants, celestial objects and geometrical shapes.
However, these basic elements could also be combined together to form up to 16,000 other glyphs. It soon became clear to linguistic scholars that Rongorongo was a highly complex and sophisticated form of writing. Yet even to this day it has never been deciphered.
Sadly, those few clan elders who were said to be still able to understand the Rongorongo script at the time of Reynaud soon succumbed, some as a result of the Peruvian slave raid of 1862, and others from the subsequent epidemics of smallpox and tuberculosis which the slave traders brought to the island.
Questions and Answers
The many mysteries that can be found on Easter Island raise the following critical questions:
- Who exactly built the stone statues on Easter Island?
- How did they carve them out of the solid rock?
- How did they transport them?
- When did they build them?
- Why did they build them?
- Did the same people who built the statues also carve the petroglyphs?
- Did these same people also build the megalithic wall at Ahu Vinapu?
- Were these same people responsible for creating the Rongorongo script?
Prior to his arrival on Easter Island, it is doubtful if Thor Heyerdahl was aware of James Churchward, or of his claim that there once had existed a vast continent in the Pacific Ocean that had been devastated by a series of cataclysms, and had sunk beneath the waves, as explained in Part One.
Cyclopean Stone Ruins at Sacsayhuaman in Peru
But even if he had been, it is likely that he would simply have dismissed Churchward’s theory as fictional legend. Because of the similarities in stonework found on the island with that of the Incas, Heyerdahl favoured the idea that the original stone builders had come to Easter Island from Peru.
However, modern archeologists have concluded that, because Polynesians were found living on Easter Island when Westerners explorers first arrived, that it must have been the Polynesians themselves who were responsible for all of these enigmatic features, from the statues to the petroglyphs and the writing,
According to this conventional theory, Easter Island was most likely first populated by Polynesian settlers, who arrived in their canoes and catamarans from other island chains in the Eastern Pacific, such as the Gambier Islands or the Marquesas Islands.
It was noted that when the British explorer James Cook called in at Easter Island in 1774, one of his crew members who came from Bora Bora in French Polynesia, was able to communicate with the islanders in his native language.
A report issued recently by National Geographic had this to say about the origins of Easter Island:
“It’s not clear when the islands were first settled; estimates range from A.D. 800 to 1200. It’s also not clear how quickly the island ecosystem was wrecked—but a major factor appears to be the cutting of millions of giant palms to clear fields or make fires.
“It is possible that Polynesian rats, arriving with human settlers, may have eaten enough seeds to help to decimate the trees. Either way, loss of the trees exposed the island’s rich volcanic soils to serious erosion. When Europeans arrived in 1722, they found the island mostly barren and its inhabitants few.”
The report went on to add this comment regarding the mysterious Moai:
“Rapa Nui’s mysterious moai statues stand in silence but speak volumes about the achievements of their creators… The effort to construct these monuments and move them around the island must have been considerable -but no one knows exactly why the Rapa Nui people undertook such a task.
“Most scholars suspect that the moai were created to honor ancestors, chiefs, or other important personages, However, no written and little oral history exists on the island, so it’s impossible to be certain.” (View Source)
So the real answer to the questions posed above is that no one knows for sure who built the amazing stone statues, or how they did so, or why. We also don’t know who carved the petroglyphs, or who created the sophisticated hieroglyphic script called Rongorongo.
Moai Restored by Western Archeologists
What we do know, however, is that the Polynesians themselves also do not know. We also know that similar stone Moai to those found on Easter Island have never been found on any of the other Pacific Islands that have been settled by the Polynesian people.
Furthermore, we know that all the fallen Moai that have been rebuilt on their traditional stone platforms, have been erected by western archeologists and not by the Polynesian inhabitants, who seem to express little interest in their care and preservation.
But, as we will discover in the following instalment, there is a possibility that all of the mysteries of Easter Island can be resolved if we examine the evidence detailed above from a different point of view – a point of view that validates the story told by James Churchward in his book The Lost Continent of Mu.
The Greek Lawgiver Solon
In his written dialogue called Timaeus, Plato described how Solon, the famed lawmaker of ancient Greece who lived 600 years before the time of Christ, had travelled to Egypt where he was honoured for his wisdom and understanding.
According to Plato, while he was in Egypt, Solon had asked an elderly Egyptian priest if he could recount their earliest history. The priest replied:
“Oh Solon, Solon, you Greeks are all children, and there is no such thing as an old Greek…You have no belief rooted in old tradition and no knowledge hoary with age. And the reason is this. There have been and will be many different calamities to destroy mankind, the greatest of them by fire and water, lesser ones by countless other means.”
The idea that mankind has been destroyed many times in ages past as a result of natural catastrophes, is one that does not sit well with modern Historians, Geologists or Archeologists, all of whom pay homage to the dogma of Uniformitarianism.
Despite the fact that Plato is regarded today as one of the foremost Greek philosophers, having been a student of Socrates as well as the tutor of Aristotle, there is no room at the Inn of orthodox science for stories of past cataclysms, no matter how august their source.
Modern historians claim that the recorded history of mankind began with the invention of writing, which is believed to have begun in Mesopotamia around 3,000 BC, with Sumerian Cuneiform texts written on clay tablets. Egyptian writing, in the form of hieroglyphics written on papyrus, is believed to have begun about the same time.
It should come as no surprise therefore, that when a book was published in 1926 describing the existence of a towering civilization that dominated the world for hundreds of thousands of years, only to be destroyed in a world-wide cataclysm that has long since been forgotten, it was rejected as having no scientific credibility whatsoever.
The book was called The Lost Continent of Mu: Motherland of Man, and its author was a British born occult writer named James Churchward. In this book he claimed that, while he had been a soldier in India more than fifty years before, he had been befriended by a high-ranking temple priest.
As he later explained in a lecture he gave in Mount Vernon, New York, in 1931:
“This old Master and his two cousins, both older than himself, and he was over 70 years of age 50 years ago, were the sole survivors of the Naacal Brotherhood which had existed for 70,000 years.
“This Brotherhood had been formed in the Motherland, when experts of religion and the Cosmic Sciences were being sent from Mu to her various colonies. These three were the only ones left in India who understood the language of the Motherland, her symbols, alphabet and forms of writing.
“For seven years during all my available time, I diligently studied under this old Rishi, …with a view of finding out something about ancient man. At that time I had no idea of publishing my findings. I made the study purely to satisfy my curious self. I was the only one to whom this old Rishi ever gave instructions on this subject.” (View Source)
Churchward claimed that this temple priest had showed him two sets of ancient “sunburnt” clay tablets, supposedly written in the Naga-Maya language of Mu. He was told that these tablets had originated in the place “where man first appeared”.
Under the direction of this temple priest, Churchward learned how to read these tablets, and it was from this information that he was later able to describe the continent of Mu (also called Lemuria) as the home of an advanced civilization, which had begun some 200,000 years before.
Churchward claimed that Mu was the site of the original “Garden of Eden”, and that it was the home of the Naacals, a “white” race whose civilization was technologically more advanced than any other, and that Mu was the inspiration for later civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, Central America, India, Babylon, Persia and others.
He also claimed that the civilization of Mu was renowned for its megalithic architecture, involving cyclopean stones weighing up to hundreds of tons, that fitted together so perfectly that no mortar was needed to hold them in place. And although later cultures may have imitated their technology, they were but a pale shadow of the glory that was Mu.
Colonel Churchward’s map of Mu
According to Churchward, the continent of Mu was located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and that as a result of the greatest tragedy in the history of mankind, it was afflicted by a series of cataclysms and sank beneath the waves, carrying down with it some 63 million people.
He also claimed that, based on the writing on the clay tablets, the entire continent had been “completely obliterated in almost a single night”, and that after a series of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, “the broken land fell into that great abyss of fire”, and was covered by “fifty millions of square miles of water”.
Scientists today scoff at Churchward’s story of the civilization of Mu, and of the alleged lost continent of Lemuria, dismissing them both as mere fictional legends, especially since they contend that an entire continent could neither sink nor be destroyed in so short a period of time.
Besides, according to the latest geological knowledge of plate tectonics, continents
are considered to be vast, solid blocks of lighter rock (continental crust), that float upon heavier rock (oceanic crust), much like icebergs float on water, and cannot simply sink suddenly beneath the ocean.
Furthermore, as we have seen in earlier posts, geologists base their views on the theory of Uniformitarianism, which posits that all earth changes take place over huge amounts of geological time, and that if an entire continent were to be displaced, this would require a time span of many hundreds of millions of years.
On the face of it, the evidence would seem to support the scientific point of view. If a continental landmass did once exist in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, it certainly isn’t there now. All that exists today are a series of atolls linked with a handful of tiny, volcanic islands that lie scattered many thousands of miles apart.
Based on an analysis of linguistic and cultural similarities of the region, it is generally accepted today that the first people to settle on these islands came from South East Asia. Successive migrations are believed to have taken place at different times following the last ice-age.
Starting around 1,600 BC, the population is believed to have spread to Micronesia (Marianne, Marshall archipelagos), and then to Melanesia (Papua-New Guinea, Solomon Islands), before moving on to Western Polynesia (Fiji, Tonga, Samoa).
The central archipelagos of the Cook islands, the Marquesas and the Society islands that make up Eastern Polynesia, are thought to have been inhabited at a later time, and these islands are considered to have been the source of subsequent migrations to the Hawaiian islands.
All of these island cultures were characterised by a simple yet ecologically sound lifestyle, with wooden houses built on stone platforms, and woven roofs made from coconut and pandanus leaves, using simple tools of wood and stone, before European explorers later introduced them to the use of metal implements.
But this is where Churchward’s tale becomes tantalizingly evocative, because although these different islands are separated by vast expanses of open ocean, they share enigmatic ruins that are at odds with everything that is known about the cultures that reside on these islands today.
The Water Planet
These ruins also pose the following question. Why, on a globe that contains so many different continents, is all the land that exists upon the surface of the planet limited to one hemisphere only? This can be seen from the image on the right generated by Google Earth. It is a simulated view of the earth from an altitude of 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometres), and is centred above 17ºS, 150ºW to the southwest of Tahiti.
Could it be, that in spite of the current theories of science, there really was at one time a continent located in the Pacific, and that the islands that now dot the ocean are all that remain of this sunken land, that was once home to an advanced civilization?
And if they really were once part of a greater whole, might there still exist on some of these islands fragmentary evidence of this ancient culture, particularly if it was renowned for its megalithic architecture, and its use of cyclopean blocks of stone?
Certainly, there are plenty of islands that have strange ruins involving the use of gigantic blocks of stone, some of which weighing many tons, that were never part of Polynesian culture. One of the most famous of these ruins can be found in the Caroline islands in the Western Pacific.
The Artificial Islands of Nan Madol
Nan Madol lies off the eastern shore of the island of Pohnpei (formerly Ponape), that is part of the Federated States of Micronesia. It is a megalithic city consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals, built on top of a bed of coral, and is often referred to as the “Venice of the Pacific”.
The ruins of this ancient city cover an area of about seven square miles (18 square kms). These artificial islands were made by stacking large, hexagonal prisms made of black basalt. It is estimated that about 250 million pieces of prismatic basalt rock were needed to create the foundations of this megalithic city.
The largest structure at Nan Madol, called Nan Douwas, is oriented to the cardinal directions and consists of two concentric perimeter walls, separated by a seawater moat that encloses a pyramidal mound. The enormous cornerstone that lies on its southeastern side, weighs around fifty tons.
Gigantic Basalt Columns of Nan Madol
The ruins of Nan Madol raise a multitude of questions that have never been satisfactorily resolved. Why, for example, did the original builders go to the trouble of building artificial islands when they could have simply built on any of the natural coral reef islands nearby?
And why did they build a city of this size in a location that had no food or source of potable water? One has to go many miles inland to grow food and gather water. How did they feed the population? And what was the point of building the city in the first place?
The simple logistics of assembling such a vast quantity of basalt rock in one place are truly mind-boggling. The builders not only had to find a suitable quarry for the rock, but then had to meet the challenge of transporting this material, estimated to total about 700 metric tons, from its source to its final destination.
The current scientific theory is that the builders used wooden rafts to carry these basalt columns. But when the Discovery Channel tried to demonstrate the use of this method for a TV documentary in 1995, they were unable to find a way of transporting anything weighing over one ton.
Pohnpei’s only archeologist, Rufino Mauricio, who has dedicated his life to studying and preserving these ruins, confessed:
“We don’t know how they brought the columns here and we don’t know they lifted them up to build the walls.”
He added that given the size of the population at that time, thought to be fewer than 30,000 people, the construction of Nan Madol was an even larger and more remarkable achievement than the Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt.
Tunnels link the islands at Nan Madol
There is one further mystery about these island ruins. Many of these artificial islands are interlinked by a series of tunnels. And some of these tunnels have been found to continue underwater, in the direction of the open ocean.
The only explanation that seems at all logical to explain these mysteries is that one of two things must have happened. Either the level of the sea rose since these artificial islands were built, or the major part of the land has sunk, leaving the ruins partially submerged.
As amazing as the ruins of Nan Madol undoubtedly are, the relatively crude way in which these buildings were constructed, with basalt columns stacked one upon another, can hardly be mistaken for an ancient civilization renowned for its expertise in megalithic construction.
But they could have been built by a culture that had survived the original destruction of Mu, and still retained some of the knowledge that was used on Mu, such as the ability to create and move gigantic stones, even if they did not fully match the beauty and scope of the architecture of the Motherland .
However, there are other ruins that lie scattered around the Pacific Ocean that are truly cyclopean in size, that could easily be hundreds of thousands of years old. They speak of a long vanished past that could well validate the stories that were told to James Churchward by that old temple priest.
The island of Tongatapu in the Tonga Islands has a remarkable megalithic arch, that is the only one of its type to be found in the South Pacific. It is called the trilithon of Ha’amonga. Each of the upright coral pillars is about fifteen feet (4.9 metres) high, and weigh about fifty tons. The lintel, or crosspiece, which is set into grooves in the upright stones, weighs about nine tons.
The Mighty Trilithon of Ha’amonga
One of the cities on Tongatapu has an astonishing linguistic link with the continent of Mu. It is called Mu’a. Its ceremonial centre contains many megalithic platforms known as Langi. The largest of these, called Langi Tauhala, contains a single block of stone weighing over thirty tons.
Part of the megalithic wall
The central area of Mu’a is surrounded by a canal, and has massive rocks that form part of a wall that extends over 660 yards (200 metres) on the lagoon side of the city. They suggest that at one time they might have been part of an ancient wharf where large vessels once docked.
Truncated, pyramidal platforms, known as Marae, have been found throughout the Society Islands. Some of them consist of megalithic stones that have been carefully shaped and fitted. The largest of these, known as Marae Mahaiatea, can be found on the island of Raiatea in the Leeward Islands. It has eleven steps and rises to a height of over forty feet (13 metres).
Ancient megalithic ruins covered by vegetation
Similar Marae can be found on the islands of Tahiti, Bora Bora and Moorea. The remains of other great stone platforms built of cyclopean basalt blocks, some weighing over ten tons, can also be found throughout the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia. Covered with jungle vegetation, they stand today as mute evidence of a vanished civilization.
More ruins of great stone platforms and terraces, overgrown with jungle vegetation, can be found throughout French Polynesia. These platforms are made of cyclopean basalt blocks weighing up to 10 tons each.
One of the most impressive of these can be found on Nuku Hiva, the largest of the Marquesas Islands. The ancient ceremonial centre in the Taipivai Valley includes a massive platform, made again of basalt blocks. It contains an estimated 6,800 cubic metres of earth fill, and is 560 yards (170 metres) long.
The above sites are merely a few examples of the megalithic ruins that can be found on islands all over the Pacific Ocean. Additional information about further ruins can be found here.
The fact that these ruins exist at all is an enduring mystery, because they were never part of the Polynesian culture, and the Polynesians themselves have no idea who built these massive stone edifices, or how they managed such stupendous feats of engineering, that are so far beyond their own capabilities.
Yet even more mysterious stone ruins are located on one of the most remote islands in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. The Polynesians called this island Rapa Nui. We know it today as Easter Island, because the first European to visit it was the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen, who encountered it on Easter Sunday in 1722.
Easter Island may be renowned for its unique stone statues known as Moai, but this tiny island also contains evidence of a far more advanced civilization than any that have been discovered elsewhere, as we shall discover in the following instalment.
Scott: My name is Scott Paton. I am talking today with Allan Colston. He is the author of the book “The Last Days of Tolemac”. This is a book dealing with prophecy.
For those listeners who may be new to this topic, this Podcast is another in the series “Signs of the Times”. Hello Allan and welcome to the Podcast.
Hello Scott. It’s good to be with you again.
Scott: In our last discussion you referred to the American philosopher George Santayana, who wrote that those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
That’s correct Scott. I also went on to say that our world has suffered from numerous global catastrophes in the past, and that these disasters have wiped out entire civilizations that have now vanished from the historical record.
But the reason why we no longer remember these earlier disasters is not because we lack the evidence, but because modern historians have deliberately chosen to ignore them.
Scott: But why would historians do such a thing?
That’s an excellent question Scott. On the face of it this would seem to make no sense at all. But that is why the work of Thomas Kuhn is so important, and why I have devoted so much time to his research in recent discussions.
As Kuhn pointed out in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, all science is practised in a paradigm. And he was not just referring here to natural sciences like astronomy, cosmology, physics and chemistry, but also to things like geology, biology, history and archeology.
What he meant by this is that every scientific discipline is based on a certain set of beliefs that are considered to be established facts. And because these beliefs are considered to be proven beyond doubt, they are no longer questioned.
But the problem that Kuhn identified, and which formed the major part of his book, was that within the history of science over the last 400 years, there have been numerous examples where these “proven” beliefs have later been found to be wrong.
It is these mistakes of the past which have led to complete revisions of past data, in ways that have led to enormous upheavals that Kuhn called scientific revolutions. And that is what we are seeing in the world of science today.
Scott: Why do you say that Allan?
Well Scott, as I have indicated in my last two Blog posts, the Theory of Evolution set out by Charles Darwin in his book The Origin of Species has been hailed for over a century as one of the most complete scientific theories ever conceived, and is today regarded by science as a proven fact of nature.
Unfortunately, it also happens to suffer from one small defect.
The problem is that over the course of the 155 years that have passed since his book was first published, no evidence has been found to support Darwin’s central thesis, which is that all species have evolved from a single progenitor.
In spite of an exhaustive search of the fossil record, there is no evidence to show that one species has changed into a completely new species, as a result of an infinite series of tiny changes that have been passed on from one generation to another….Nada…. None!
Scott: So are you saying that Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is wrong?
Absolutely. As I pointed out in an earlier Blog post, the basic principles of Darwin’s theory have now been found to be unfounded.
Now I am not saying that the idea of evolution itself is wrong. The fossil record makes it clear that different species have lived on the earth in forms of ever increasing complexity, over periods of time that span many hundreds of millions of years.
There is also no question that every species undergoes a struggle for survival, and that it is the strong who are best equipped to survive. It is also obvious that every species has a remarkable capacity to adapt to changes in its environment.
Furthermore, as Darwin correctly pointed out, every species can adapt to these changes in environment by changing their physical characteristics. And these changes can be passed on from one generation to another.
In fact, every aspect of Darwin’s acclaimed theory of evolution is correct – except for the most important one, and that is this.
One species does not change over time into another species. As the evidence now conclusively proves, no species ever has. And from this we may safely deduce that no species ever will.
Scott: So Allan, why do you think that Darwin’s Theory of Evolution still continues to be taught?
Well Scott, it continues to be taught for the reason that Thomas Kuhn pointed out in his book. It has become an entrenched part of our current scientific paradigm, and to question this now would be to challenge the validity of the paradigm itself.
To do so would be heresy, as well as being professional suicide. No biologist would have a hope of attaining recognition or status within the official ranks of science today, if he or she publicly challenged Darwin’s theory.
And so it is with so many of the other “facts” of science. Those who try to challenge established ideas are denied space to publish their work in official journals, or to defend themselves when their characters are impugned, and the results of their research are rejected.
Or like Velikovsky, who chose to publish his unconventional ideas in books which subsequently became international best sellers, they are personally ostracised and excommunicated from their particular discipline of science.
So Darwin’s Theory of Evolution continues to be taught today for the simple reason that science doesn’t have a better theory to replace it. And because the prospect of going back to the Biblical idea of Creationism, or its later cousin called Intelligent Design, fills them with horror and dismay.
But to get back to your original question Scott, of why historians would deliberately choose to ignore evidence of past cataclysms, I need to point out something else that is closely linked to Darwin and his Theory of Evolution.
Scott: Please carry on Allan. I find this fascinating.
When Darwin was 22 years old, he set sail on HMS Beagle on a journey that was to last five years and take him all around the world. It was while he was on board the ship that the Captain gave him a copy of a book which has just been published.
The name of the book was Principles of Geology, and it was written by one of the most influential scientists of his day, and a man whose work still forms the basis of modern geology. His name was Charles Lyell.
Lyell was an interesting man. Born in Scotland into a family of means, he was educated at Oxford University, where he graduated with an M.A. degree in 1821. After graduating, he decided to take up Law, and for a while practised as an attorney.
A few years later, however, Lyell began to suffer from failing eyesight. He therefore decided to abandon his legal career, and turn instead to geology, which had been a long-time hobby of his, and make this his new full-time profession.
One might suppose that a man with failing eyesight would have been better served by pursuing matters of law, rather than the demands of fieldwork in an exacting profession. But in Lyell’s case, it was a decision that would lead to personal fame and subsequent knighthood.
What made such a profound impact on the young Darwin, and played a leading part in the development of his theory of Natural Selection, was the fact that Charles Lyell was a staunch believer in the concept of Uniformitarianism.
Scott: What exactly was Uniformitarianism?
Well Scott, it was the idea that the earth was shaped in the past by the same forces that we see at work today. In fact the subtitle of Principles of Geology was: “An attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth’s surface by reference to causes now in operation“.
While he was a student at Oxford, Lyell had attended lectures given by William Buckland, who believed equally firmly that the earth had been afflicted by numerous catastrophes in the past.
However, Lyell became disenchanted with Buckland’s ideas, especially when he tried to link the concept of catastrophism with the Bible, by using the story of Noah’s flood as an example.
For Lyell, the present was the key to the understanding of the past, and there was no need to introduce references to God, the Bible, or any other supernatural source, in order to explain the changes that had taken place on the earth in the past.
In due course Lyell’s version of geology came to be known as Uniformitarianism, because of his fierce insistence that the processes that alter the earth’s surface act in a uniform manner, and that they take place imperceptibly slowly.
His work influenced Darwin deeply, so that when he later came to write his Origin of Species, he described the process of Natural Selection as a kind of biological uniformitarianism, where evolution took place in front of our eyes, but at a pace that was much too slow for us to recognise.
There was, however, one supreme irony in all of this. In spite of the simplicity and elegance of Lyell’s theory of uniformity, he was faced with the same embarrassing problem that later confronted Charles Darwin.
Scott: What was that?
The short answer is that Lyell’s theory wasn’t supported by the evidence. This embarrassing fact was so obvious that Lyell pointed it out himself in his book. In the 12th edition of Principles of Geology he wrote:
“It has been truly observed that when we arrange the known fossiliferous formations in chronological order, they constitute a broken and defective series.”
Then after listing even more anomalies that were apparent in the stratification record, and which also were in conflict with his theory, Lyell went on to conclude:
“These violations of continuity are so common as to constitute in most regions the rule rather than the exception, and they have been considered by many geologists as conclusive in favour of sudden revolutions in the inanimate and animate world.”
When Charles Darwin arrived in South America and began to examine the fossiliferous formations in that part of the world, he found even more dramatic evidence of earth’s catastrophic past. As he published in his Journal of Researches:
“It is impossible to reflect on the changed state of the American continent without the deepest astonishment. Formerly, it must have swarmed with great monsters: now we find mere pigmies, compared with the antecedent, allied races.”
“Certainly, no fact in the long history of the world is so startling as the wide and repeated exterminations of its inhabitants.”
“What, then, has exterminated so many species and whole genera? The mind at first is irresistibly hurried into the belief of some great catastrophe; but thus to destroy animals, both large and small, in Southern Patagonia, in Brazil, on the Cordillera of Peru, in North America up to Behring’s Straits, we must shake the entire framework of the globe.”
Scott: So how did Charles Lyell deal with this problem?
Well Scott, you’re not going to believe this. Since he couldn’t deny the evidence that lay all around him, and which contradicted his theory of slow, imperceptible change, Lyell chose to fall back on a proven strategy that had served him well as a practising attorney.
That strategy can best be summarised as follows. When the facts support your argument, then emphasize the facts. But when they don’t, then ignore the facts completely, and question instead the integrity of all those who believe them.
Clearly, Lyell was not the sort of person to allow embarrassing facts to stand in the way of his personal theory. So instead of amending his theory to match the facts, as one would expect from an ethical scientist, he chose instead to ignore everything that contradicted his theory.
In fact he went even further. He blithely dismissed his critics as ignorant men who didn’t know what they were talking about, and, furthermore, were unaware of their own ignorance. As he wrote in Principles:
“It appeared clear that the earlier geologists had not only a scant acquaintance with existing changes (caused by wind, flowing water, etc.), but they were singularly unconscious of the amount of their ignorance.”
Scott: I’m absolutely amazed, Allan. I can’t believe he could get away with it.
Exactly Scott. One can’t imagine anyone getting away with such a thing today. But get away with it he did. In fact, in certain cases he even resorted to parody as a way of shrugging off facts that contradicted his theory.
Perhaps the best example of this was the matter of the wandering hippopotamus.
Scott: What was that all about?
Well Scott, it seems that in a cave at Settle in west Yorkshire, England, located some 1450 feet above sea level, were found the remains of a variety of animals that included mammoth, rhinoceros, bison, hyena and hippopotamus.
During excavations, it became clear that the floor of the cavern was covered in sand containing foreign pebbles, which indicated that it had been submerged beneath the sea at an earlier time.
The question that perplexed people at the time was how the bones ended up together in a single cavern, especially when none of the animals found in the cave had ever lived in the British Isles.
To most geologists of that time, this seemed like clear evidence that the earth had undergone some great catastrophe in the past. Not so Charles Lyell. He dismissed such an idea, and offered up in its place the following explanation in his book Antiquity of Man:
“The geologist … may freely speculate on the time when herds of hippopotami issued from North African rivers, such as the Nile, and swam northward in summer along the coasts of the Mediterranean, or even occasionally visited islands near the shore. Here and there they may have landed to graze or browse, tarrying awhile, and afterwards continuing their course northward.
“Others may have swum in a few summer days from rivers in the south of Spain or France to the Somme, Thames, or Severn (rivers in Wales and England), making timely retreat to the south before the snow and ice set in.”
This bizarre scenario may have fobbed off other lily-livered geologists of that time, but when Immanuel Velikovsky came across this passage in the course of his researches, he could not resist this sardonic response which he included in his book Earth in Upheaval:
“Hippopotami not only travelled during the summer nights to England and Wales, but also climbed hills to die peacefully among other animals in caves, and the ice, approaching softly, tenderly spread little pebbles over the travellers resting in peace, and the land with its hills and caverns in a slow lullaby movement sank below the level of the sea and gentle streams caressed the dead bodies and covered them with rosy sand.”
Scott: Well Allan, I’ve got to hand it to you. That really is quite a hoot.
Well Scott, it would be if it weren’t such a sad reflection on the true state of affairs in science today.
Unfortunately, the moral of this story is that for almost two centuries geologists have allowed themselves to be hoodwinked by the theory of Uniformitarianism, and have ignored the facts that blatantly contradict this theory.
And instead of being the recipient of all the high honours that were conferred upon him, including a knighthood, Charles Lyell should have been run out of town by the nearest sheriff for being the scoundrel that he was.
In fact it gets worse. The idea that changes in the surface of the earth have primarily been the result of forces of nature that operate slowly and imperceptibly, has now also been incorporated into the paradigms of History and Archeology.
So references to cataclysmic events that can still be found in historical records are ignored by scholars today. And structural ruins that bear testimony to catastrophic changes in the past, continue to be ignored by archeologists.
They are ignored because the idea of catastrophic change within the recent history of the earth has now been officially expunged from the current paradigm of science. Those few brave souls who still continue to challenge that view are condemned to being mere voices crying in the wilderness.
So Scott, there you have the answer to your question. Historians ignore the evidence of catastrophic events that have occurred in recent times in the history of the earth, because to do otherwise would offend the theory of Uniformitarianism, which has now become part of the official dogma of science.
Scott: So are you saying there are written records of past disasters that are deliberately being ignored by historians?
Yes Scott there are. Probably no one was better equipped to interpret these ancient records than Immanuel Velikovsky. His brilliant intellect and talent for languages allowed him to delve into records that were written in English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German, French, Italian and Spanish.
After spending ten years conducting research at major libraries around the world, Velikovsky went on to write numerous books detailing the evidence that he found.
His most famous work Worlds in Collision was devoted to an analysis of literary sources taken from ancient cultures in all parts of the world. And his book Earth in Upheaval focused on the geological evidence that he found.
In his books Velikovsky produced evidence taken from ancients documents emanating from pre-Columbian America, as well as from China, India, Persia, Babylon, Iceland, Finland, Greece and Rome.
Some of these literary sources are included in my Blog post here
Despite the fact that all of the excerpts taken from these ancient documents were carefully referenced and annotated, historians are content today to dismiss them as mythical stories, rather than as accounts of real events that actually happened.
In my next instalment Scott, I want to draw attention to the way modern archeologists have also chosen to ignore ruins of ancient civilizations that can still be found all over the world, simply because they too do not fit in with the dogma of Uniformitarianism.
Scott: Thanks Allan. This has been another fascinating discussion on the way the history of science has unfolded over the last few centuries.
You have been listening to Allan Colston, author of the book “The Last Days of Tolemac”. Do join us for our next Podcast in the series titled “Signs of the Times”.